The Traces of Oppression and Trauma to Ethnic Minorities in Indonesia Who Experienced Rape on the 12 May 1998 Tragedy: A Review of Literature

Anas Ahmadi


This study explores oppression and trauma to ethnic Chinese minority women in Indonesia who experienced rape on the 12 May 1998 tragedy through literary data. The research method used was qualitative-narrative. The data source used was a novel titled Mei Merah (MM). The data analysis technique was carried out through stages that identified literary texts related to women's oppression from ethnic minorities; clarification of literary texts related to the oppression of women from ethnic minorities; data exposure; and data validation. The results show that ethnic Chinese women in Indonesia who experienced rape undergo trauma, impacting their psychological conditions. This was shown through Humaira, the novel’s character, who experienced a phase of trauma, a phase of madness, and a phase of suicide due to rape. It happened because of a profound traumatic experience. Moreover, ethnic minority women who are raped often go abroad to remove traces because they feel ashamed and traumatized by being raped.


ethnic minorities, literary, oppression, rape, trauma psychology, women

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