Acculturation of Halal Food to the American Food Culture through Immigration and Globalization

Abdelhadi Halawa



The purpose of this meta-analysis study is to examine the acculturation process of halal food to the American food culture. Further, is to determine the effects the acculturation of halal food on the consumer and food economy in the U.S. and globally. Irrespective of where a Muslim resides or travels to, consuming halal food is an obligatory religious dietary requirement for all Muslims worldwide. According to recent census estimates, there are nearly 3.3 million Muslims living in the U.S. This number represents nearly 1% of the total U.S. population. By 2050, this number will more than double. The U.S. is considered a melting pot of a mélange of many ethnic groups and is one of the most culturally and ethnically diverse countries in the world. Through both Muslims immigration to the U.S. and trade globalization, halal food was introduced to the American food culture. Migrant Muslims have not brought only their Islamic religious traditions to the U.S., but also their traditional halal food preparation, including butchering of animals for consumption, their distinct cooking styles, and other Islamic dietary practices. This paper offers an analysis of the process of acculturation and transition of halal food products to both the Muslim and non-Muslim American consumers. This paper further examines the impact of the burgeoning halal food economy on the U.S. food industry and its share of the growing global halal food economy. There a need for further research to study the long-term socioeconomic and environmental sustainability impact on growing global Muslim populations living in low-income counties.


Acculturation, Halal food, Food Culture, Islam in America, Muslim Immigrants, the United States, Globalization.

Full Text:



Africa Islamic Economic Foundation. (2013). The Global Halal Industry: An Overview Retrieved from

Bodied, A. (2007). The world’s fastest-growing population is also a massively untapped food and fashion market. Retrieved from

Bonne, K., Vermeir, I., Bergeaud-Blackler, F., & Verbeke, W. (2007). Determinants of halal meat consumption in France. British Food Journal, 109(5), 367-386. doi:10.1108/0070700710746786

Business Wire. (2017). Halal food market in the U.S: Top 3 drivers and forecasts by Technavio. Retrieved from

Chaudry, M., & Riaz, M. N. (2014). Safety of Food and Beverages: Halal Food Requirements. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

Cession PR Newswire. (2017). Halal food market analysis: Technologies & forecasts to 2025. Retrieved from

Counihan, C., & Van Esoteric, P. (2012). Food and Culture: A Reader 3rd Edition. Oxford, UK: Routledge.

Diabetes Care and Education DPG. (2009). Cultural Food Practices (1st ed.). Chicago, IL: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Deutsche Welle. (2011). Europe’s Muslim population expected to rise by a third by 2030. Retrieved from 2030/a14799979

Dorzhigushaeva, O., Dondukov, B., & Dondukova, G. (2017). Buddhist religious education in the context of modern russian policy of multicultural education: A case of the republic of buryatia.Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 8(2), 80-99. doi:10.17499/jsser.86376

Dubow, P. (2017). Is China’s belt and road initiative increasing crime and terrorism? Retrieved from

Eltis, D., Engerman, S., Drescher, D., & Richardson, D. (Eds.) (2017). The Cambridge World History of Slavery. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Fischler, C. (1988). Food, Self and Identity. Social Science Information, 27, 275-292.

Gillette, M. B (2000). Between Mecca and Beijing: Modernization and Consumption Among Urban Chinese Muslims (1st ed.). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Green, J., & Gammon, C. (2016). How halal food became a $20 billion hit in America. Retrieved from

Halawa, A., Ai, S., & Ma, Z. (2017). Association Between Ethnicity and Dietary Behaviors in Chinese Han and Hui Nationalities. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 4(2), 65-80.

Halal Food Authority. (2016). Definition of Halal. Retrieved from

Haub, C. (2011). China releases first 2010 census results. Population Reference Bureau, Washington, DC. Retrieved from

Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America (2010). IFANCA to address fast-growing U.S. halal food market at the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) annual meeting and Food Expo 2010 in Chicago. Retrieved from

Junru, L. (2011). Chinese food. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Khattak, J. Z. K., Mir, A., Anwar, Z., Wahedi, H. M., Abbas, G., Khattak, H. Z. K, & Ismatullah, H. (2011). Concept of Halal Food and Biotechnology. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3(5), 385-389.

Kittler, P. G., Sucher, K. P., & Nahikian-Nelms, M. (2012). Food and Culture (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.

Koctürk-Runefors, T. (1990). Changes in food habits and nutritional status of immigrants from Turkey in Sweden. Bibl Nutr Dieta, 45, 157-150.

Kopish, M. A. (2016). Preparing globally competent teacher candidates through cross-cultural experiential learning. Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 7(2), 75-108.

Krishnendu, R. (2016). The Ethnic Restauranteur. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Academic.

Lakey, P. N. (2003). Acculturation: A review of the literature. Intercultural Communication Studies, 12(2), 103-118.

Library of Congress Digital Collections (n. d.). Born in slavery: Slave narratives from the federal writers' project, 1936 to 1938. Library of the Congress. Retrieved from

Lipka, M. (2017). Muslims and Islam: Key findings in the U.S. and around the world. Retrieved from

Lipka, M., & Hackett, C. (2017). Why Muslims are the world’s fastest-growing religious group Pew Research Center (n. page). Washington, DC. Retrieved from

Mark, J. J. (2014). Silk Road. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

McCracken, G. (1986). Culture and Consumption: A Theoretical Account of the Structure and Movement of the Cultural Meaning of Consumer Goods. Journal of Consumer clean, 1, 71–84.

Midamar (2017). U.S. Development of Halal Food Market. Retrieved from

Milne, E. L. (2006). Protecting Islam's garden from the wilderness: Halal fraud statutes and the First Amendment. Journal of Food Law & Policy, 2(1), 61-84.

Mohamed, B. (2016). A new estimate of the U.S. Muslim population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from

National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAHC) (n. d.) African Muslims in Early America. Retrieved from

Newman, J. (1996). Food in History: Early Chinese Food History. Science and Art in Chinese Cuisine, 3(4), 21, 23.

Parker, J. (2017). What is China’s belt and road initiative? Retrieved from

Pew Research Center (2009). Mapping the Global Muslim Population. Retrieved from

Pew Research Center (2011). The future of the global Muslim population: Projections for 2010-2030. Retrieved from

Pew Research Center. (2015a). Religious landscape study: Religious Composition by Country, Washington DC. Retrieved from

Pew Research Center. (2015b). 10 countries with the largest Muslim populations, 2010 and 2050. Retrieved from

Prepared Foods. (2010). R&D: Halal Reaches Growing Market. Retrieved from -may-2010.

Riaz, M. N. (1999). Examining the halal market. Prepared Foods, 168(10), 81-83.

Riaz, M. N. (2010). Fundamentals of Halal Foods and Certification. Prepared Foods, 179(1), 71-76.

Riaz, M. N., & Chaudry, M. M. (2003). Halal food production. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.

Redfield, R., Linton, R., & Herskovits, J. M. (1936). Memorandum for the Study of Acculturation. American Anthropologist, 38(1), 149-152. doi:10.1525/aa.1936.38.1.02a00330

Social Science Research Council Summer Seminar on Acculturation (1954). Acculturation: An exploratory formulation. American Anthropologist, 56, 973-1002.

Stacey, A (2011). Why pork is forbidden in Islam (Part 1 of 2): Obeying the laws of God. The religion of Islam. Retrieved from

Tarman, B., & Dev, S. (2018). Editorial: Learning Transformation through Innovation and Sustainability in Educational Practices. Research In Social Sciences And Technology, 3(1), i-ii. Retrieved from

Technavio. (2017). Halal Food Market in the U.S. 2017-2021. Retrieved from

Thomson Reuters. (2017). State of the Global Islamic Economy Report 2016-2017. Retrieved from

Tolba, N. (2018). From Rebellion to Riots. Research in Social Sciences and Technology, 3(2), 93-114. Retrieved from

Wee Sile, A. (2015). Why China wants a bite of the booming halal food market. Retrieved from market.html

Williams, J. (2017). A brief history of Islam in America. Vox Media. Retrieved from

World Atlas (2017). Countries with the Largest Muslim Population in the World. Retrieved from

World Atlas (n.d.). Iberian Peninsula map and Information page. Retrieved from

Zafar, A., Al-Kwifi, O. S., Saiti, B., & Bin-Othman, N. (2014). Consumer behavior dynamics of Chinese minorities. Journal of Technology Management in China, 9(1), 6-23. doi:10.1108/JTMC-10-2013-0038


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies  E-ISSN: 2149-1291

Copyright © JECS Publishing Inc.

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.


doaj_logo_new_120   EBSCO_logo_new_120