Burning Witches: The Moral Dilemmas of Ashaninka Leaders

Guillermo Enrique Delgado, Susana Frisancho

Abstract


This paper focuses on the moral reasoning of Ashaninka leaders about the burning of witches, a cultural practice that has received scant attention from intercultural scholars. We first contextualize burning witches as a cultural practice of the Ashaninka people. Then, based on qualitative interviews, we present the experience of six Ashaninka leaders with witchcraft and witchcraft accusations, as well as their moral reasoning about the social mechanisms that the Ashaninka people have traditionally used to control evil sorcery. The participants are three men and three women from the Ucayali and Junín regions in Peru’s Amazon basin. Finally, we discuss intercultural moral education and the need to analyze the reasons behind cultural practices in order to understand the rationality and reasonableness of others.


Keywords


Ashaninka people, moral dilemmas, sorcery accusations

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aguilar, J. (2005). The invention of child witches in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Social cleansing, religious commerce and the difficulties of being a parent in an urban culture. Save the Children.

Associated Press. (2016, September 28). Woman burned as a witch in Peruvian rainforest, prosecutor says. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/sep/28/woman-burned-witch-peru-rainforest-prosecutor

Bandura, A. (2002). Selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Moral Education, 31(2), 101–118. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305724022014322

Baral, S. (2014, November 4). Adolfina Ocampos, accused of witchcraft in Paraguay, is burned alive and shot with arrows. Latin Times. https://www.latintimes.com/adolfina-ocampos-accused-witchcraft-paraguay-burned-alive-and-shot-arrows-273973

Chauvelot, D. (2001). Historia de la histeria. Alianza Editorial. J.M. Marinas, Trad. (Original work published 1995).

Colby, A., & Kohlberg, L. (1987). The measurement of moral judgment: Volume 1: Theoretical foundations and research validation. Cambridge University Press.

Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación. (2003). Informe final. http://cverdad.org.pe/ifinal/

Csordas, T. J. (2013). Morality as a cultural system? Current Anthropology, 54(5), 546. https://doi.org/10.1086/672210

Davidson, H. (2018, January 4). “Bloodlust hysteria”: Sorcery accusations a brutal death sentence in Papua New Guinea. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jan/05/bloodlust-hysteria-sorcery-accusations-a-brutal-death-sentence-in-png

de Castro, E. V. (1998). Cosmological deixis and Amerindian perspectivism. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 4(3), 469. https://doi.org/10.2307/3034157

Erikson, P. (2016). Si matamos a un Brasileño, ¿En qué le concierne al gobierno? Análisis de un caso de brujería entre los Chácobos. In A. Surrallés, O. Espinosa, & D. Jabin (Eds.), Apus, caciques y presidentes: Estado y política indígena amazónica en los países andinos (pp. 179–194). IWGIA.

Espinosa, O. (2003). Desafíos a la ciudadanía multicultural en el Perú: El “mito del mestizaje” y la “cuestión indígena.” In N. Vigil & R. Zariguiey (Eds.), Ciudadanias inconclusas. El ejercicio de los derechos en sociedades asimétricas (pp. 77–89). Cooperación Técnica Alemana (GTZ) and Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.

Espinosa, O. (2009). ¿Salvajes opuestos al progreso?: Aproximaciones históricas y antropológicas a las movilizaciones indígenas en la Amazonía Peruana. Anthropologica, 27(27), 123–168. http://www.scielo.org.pe/pdf/anthro/v27n27/a07v27n27.pdf

Espinosa, O. (2012). La violencia y la historia asháninka: de Juan Santos Atahualpa a Sendero Luminoso. In J. P. Chaumeil, F. Correa, & R. Pineda (Eds.), El aliento de la memoria: Antropología e historia en la Amazonia andina (pp. 283–301). IFEA, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Espinosa, O. (2017). La educación superior intercultural en la Amazonía Peruana: Balance y desafíos. Anthropologica, 35(39), 99–122. https://doi.org/10.18800/anthropologica.201702.005

Espinosa, O. (2018). La relación de la Iglesia católica y las Iglesias evangélicas con las organizaciones indígenas en la Amazonía Peruana: La experiencia del pueblo achuar. Http://Journals.Openedition.Org/Bifea, 47(3), 267–292. https://doi.org/10.4000/bifea.10226

Frisancho, S. & Delgado, G.E. 2014. Razonamiento sobre Derechos Humanos y Prácticas Culturales en Tres Adultos de Comunidades Indígenas del Perú. Schème, Revista Eletrônica de Psicologia e Epistemologia Genética 6, 141-163. https://doi.org/10.36311/1984-1655.2014.v6n0.p141-163

Frisancho, S., Delgado, G.E. & Lam, L. 2015. El consentimiento informado en contextos de diversidad cultural. Límite 10, 3-12.

Frisancho, S. & Delgado, G.E. 2017. La Ética del Chamanismo: Conflictos Morales de Chamanes de los Pueblos Ashaninka y Shipibo-Konibo por el Uso del Dinero. Schème, Revista Eletrônica de Psicologia e Epistemologia 9, 290-319. https://doi.org/10.36311/1984-1655.2017.v9esp.11.p290

Frisancho, S. & Delgado, G.E. 2018. Moral Education as Intercultural Moral Education. Intercultural Education 29 (1), 18-39. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2017.1405214

Garra, S. (2016). Entre la Brujería y la Ley: Los certificados de un Iwishin Awajún. In A. Surrallés, O. Espinosa, & D. Jabin (Eds.), Apus, caciques y presidentes: Estado y política indígena amazónica en los países andinos (pp. 195–213). IWGIA.

General Assembly of the United Nations. (1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights. https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/

Gigerenzer, G. (2018). Decisiones instintivas. La inteligencia del inconsciente. Ariel. J. Soler Chic, Trad. (Original work published 2007).

Goetz, J., & LeCompte, M. (1984). Ethnography and qualitative design in educational research. Academic Press.

Gorski, P. (2008). Good intentions are not enough: A decolonizing intercultural Education. Intercultural Education, 19(6), 515–525. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675980802568319

Greenfield, P. M., Keller, H., Fuligni, A., & Maynard, A. (2003). Cultural pathways through universal development. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 461–490. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145221

Haidt, J. (2001). The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review, 108(4), 814–834. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.108.4.814

Helwig, C. C. (2006). Rights, civil liberties, and democracy across cultures. In M. Killen & J. G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 185–210). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2005-11748-007

Hermkens, A. K. (2015). The gendered politics of witchcraft and sorcery accusations among the Maisin of Papua New Guinea. Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, 16(1), 36–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/14442213.2014.986191

Humanist International. (2020, April 24). “Alleged witches are still killed today, in 2020”, says humanist anti-witchcraft activist Leo Igwe. [Press release]. https://humanists.international/2020/04/alleged-witches-are-still-killed-today-in-2020-says-humanist-anti-witchcraft-activist-leo-igwe/?lang=es

Hunter, J. (Ed.). (2012). Paranthropology: Anthropological approaches to the paranormal. Lulu.

Jamieson, M. (2008). Sorcery, ghostly attack, and the presence and absence of shamans among the Ulwa and Miskitu of eastern Nicaragua. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 14(3), 554–571. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9655.2008.00517.x

Killen, M., Hitti, A., Cooley, S., & Elenbaas, L. (2015). Morality, Development, and Culture. In M. Gelfand, C. Y. Chiu, & Y. Y. Hong (Eds.), Advances in Culture and Psychology (pp. 161–220). Oxford University Press.

Kohlberg, L. (1963/2008). The development of children’s orientations toward a moral order. Human Development, 51(1), 8–20. https://doi.org/10.1159/000112530

Kohlberg, L. (1966). Moral education in the schools: A developmental view. The School Review, 74(1), 1–30. https://doi.org/10.1086/442759

Kohlberg, L. (1984). Essays on moral development. Vol 2: The psychology of moral development. Harper & Row.

Kowal, E., & Paradies, Y. (2005). Ambivalent helpers and unhealthy choices: Public health practitioners’ narratives of Indigenous ill-health. Social Science and Medicine, 60(6), 1347–1357. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.07.009

La Serna, J. C. (2009). Más allá de la parusía: El enfrentamiento al demonio en el bosque: Religión, política y sociedad asháninka a través de la presencia misionera adventista en la selva central Peruana (1920-1990). Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.

La Serna, J. C. (2011). Viviendo con el diablo en casa. La enfermedad, hechicería infantil y violencia entre los asháninka desde la perspectiva misionera adventista. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’études Andines, 40(1), 81–121. https://doi.org/10.4000/bifea.1580

Lallanilla, M. (2013, June 7). Witchcraft accusations lead to torture, murders | Live science. Live Science. https://www.livescience.com/37281-witchcraft-accusations-murder-witch-hunts-sorcery.html

Lerner, R. M. (2015). Promoting social justice by rejecting genetic reductionism: A challenge for developmental science. Human Development, 58, 67–69. https://doi.org/10.1159/000381273

Makoye, K. (2017, August 22). Tanzania charges mob with killing, burning five “witches.” Reuters. https://uk.reuters.com/article/us-tanzania-crime-witchcraft/tanzania-charges-mob-with-killing-burning-five-witches-idUSKCN1B2208

Morales, D., & Mujica, A. (2019). La arqueología y el mito de origen de los shipibo-conibo de la Amazonía Peruana. Investigaciones Sociales, 22(40), 85–96. https://doi.org/10.15381/is.v22i40.15888

Müller, C., & Sanderson, S. (2020, August 10). Witch hunts: A global problem in the 21st century. Deutsche Welle. https://www.dw.com/en/witch-hunts-a-global-problem-in-the-21st-century/a-54495289

Narvaez, D. (2014). Neurobiology and the development of human morality: Evolution, culture, and wisdom. Norton Professional books.

Narvaez, D. (2016). Embodied morality: Protectionism, engagement and imagination. In Embodied morality: Protectionism, engagement and imagination. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-55399-7

Narvaez, D. (Ed.). (2018). Basic needs, wellbeing and morality: Fulfilling human potential. Palgrave Macmillian. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-97734-8

Nucci, L. (2016). Recovering the role of reasoning in moral education to address inequity and social justice. Journal of Moral Education, 45(3), 291–307. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057240.2016.1167027

Nucci, L., & Turiel, E. (2000). The moral and the personal. Sources of social conflict. In L. Nucci, G. B. Saxe, & E. Turiel (Eds.), Culture, thought, and development. Lawrence Earlbaum. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410603470

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (1966). International covenant on civil and political rights. In Treaty series, Vol. 999 (p. 171). https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx

Organization of American States. (1969). American convention on human rights, “Pact of San Jose”, Costa Rica. https://www.cidh.oas.org/basicos/english/basic3.american convention.htm

Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative research & evaluation methods: Integrating theory and practice. Sage.

Peru. Ministry of Culture. (2020). Lista completa de pueblos indígenas u originarios. https://bdpi.cultura.gob.pe/sites/default/files/archivos/paginas_internas/descargas/Lista de Pueblos Indígenas u Originarios 24112020.pdf

Peru. Ministry of Education. (2013). Hacia una educación intercultural bilingüe de calidad. Propuesta pedagógica. http://www.minedu.gob.pe/minedu/archivos/a/002/01-general/2-propuesta_pedaggogica_eib_2013.pdf

Peru. Ministry of Education. (2016). Currículo nacional de la educación básica. http://www.minedu.gob.pe/curriculo/pdf/curriculo-nacional-2016-2.pdf

Peru. National Statistics Institute. (2018). Resultados definitivos. Tomo I.

Piaget, J. (1932/1984). El criterio moral en el niño. Martínez Roca.

Piaget, J. (1952). The origin of intelligence in children. International Universities Press.

Piaget, J. (1964/1985). Seis estudios de psicología. Planeta.

Piaget, J. (1965/1995). Sociological studies. Routledge.

Piaget, J. (1966). Need and significance of cross-cultural studies in genetic psychology. In J. W. Berry & P. R. Dasen (1974) (Eds.), Culture and cognition: Readings in cross-cultural psychology. Routledge.

Piaget, J. (1970). Piaget’s theory. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael’s handbook of child psychology (pp. 703–732). John Wiley & Sons.

Portocarrero, G. (2007). Racismo y mestizaje y otros ensayos. Fondo Editorial del Congreso del Perú.

Prinz, J. (2006). The emotional basis of moral judgments. Philosophical Explorations, 9(1), 29–43. https://doi.org/10.1080/13869790500492466

Prinz, J. (2007). The emotional construction of morals. Oxford University Press.

Prinz, J. (2011). The death of morality. Morality is a culturally conditioned response. Philosophy Now, 82. https://philosophynow.org/issues/82/Morality_is_a_Culturally_Conditioned_Response

Rojas, E. (1994). Los Ashaninka, un pueblo tras el bosque. Fondo Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.

Rojas, E. (2014). El morral del colibrí. Mitología, chamanismo y ecología simbólica entre los ASHANINKA del Oriente Peruano. Horizonte.

Sani, S. (2015). The importance of intercultural education in developmental age. Procedia - Social & Behavioral Sciences, 197(25), 1148–1151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.369

Santos-Granero, F. (2002). Saint Christopher in the Amazon: Child sorcery, colonialism, and violence among the Southern Arawak. Ethnohistory, 49(3), 507–543. https://doi.org/10.1215/00141801-49-3-507

Santos-Granero, F. (2004). The enemy within: Child sorcery, revolution, and the evils of modernization in Eastern Peru. In N. L. Whitehead & R. Wright (Eds.), In darkness and secrecy: The anthropology of assault sorcery and witchcraft in Amazonia (pp. 272–305). Duke University Press. https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822385837-012

Schmidt, S. (2017, March 1). ‘She was demonized’: Nicaraguan woman dies after being thrown into fire in exorcism ritual. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2017/03/01/she-was-demonized-nicaraguan-woman-dies-after-being-thrown-into-fire-in-exorcism-ritual/

Simpson, A., & Dervin, F. (2019). Global and intercultural competences for whom? By whom? For what purpose? : An example from the Asia Society and the OECD. Compare: A Journal of Comparative & International Education, 49(4), 672–677. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2019.1586194

Sueyo, A., & Sueyo, H. (2017). Soy Sontone. Memorias de una vida en aislamiento. IEP y Ministerio de Cultura.

Tubino, F. (2015). La interculturalidad en cuestión. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Perú. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=6512628

Turiel, E. (1997). Beyond particular and universal ways: Contexts for morality. New Directions for Child & Adolescent Development, 1997(76), 87–105. https://doi.org/10.1002/cd.23219977608

Turiel, E. (1998). Notes from the underground: Culture, conflict, and subversion. In J. Langer & M. Killen (Eds.), Piaget, evolution, and development (pp. 271–296). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Turiel, E. (2002). The culture of morality. In The culture of morality: Social development, context, and conflict. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511613500

Turiel, E. (2006). Thought, emotions, and social interactional processes in moral development. In M. Killen & J. G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 7–35). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2005-11748-001

Turiel, E. (2012a). Moral reasoning, cultural practices, and social inequalities. Innovación Educativa, 12(59), 17–32. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=4165106&info=resumen&idioma=ENG

Turiel, E. (2012b). Moral universality and relativism: Variations in social decisions, social opposition and coordination as bases for cultural commonalities. In J. García, R. Kohen, C. del Barrio, I. Enesco, & J. Linaza (Eds.), Construyendo mentes. Ensayos en homenaje a Juan Delval. UNED.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2006). Directrices de la UNESCO sobre la educación intercultural. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000147878_spa

Valles, M. S. (1999). Técnicas cualitativas de investigación social: Reflexión metodológica y práctica profesional. Síntesis.

Vigil, N. (2010). Racismo en el discurso sobre los asháninkas de Satipo. Discurso & Sociedad, 4(3), 538–578. www.dissoc.org

von Dacre, J. S. (2019, June 19). Thousands killed in Tanzania for being witches. Inside Over. https://www.insideover.com/society/thousands-killed-in-tanzania-for-being-witches.html

Wainryb, C. (1991). Understanding differences in moral judgments: The role of informational assumptions. Child Development, 62(4), 840–851. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131181

Wainryb, C. (2006). Moral development in culture: Diversity, tolerance, and justice. In M. Killen & J. G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 211–240). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2005-11748-008

Wainryb, C., & Recchia, H. (2014). Moral lives across cultures. Heterogeneity and conflict. In M. Killen & J. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (2nd ed., pp. 259–278). Psychology Press.

Wainryb, C., & Turiel, E. (1993). Conceptual and informational features in moral decision making. Educational Psychologist, 28(3), 205–218. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep2803_2

Wedel, J. (2010). Spiritual afflictions and sorcery accusations among the Miskitu. Anthropos, 105(2), 369–382. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25734809?seq=1

Whitehead, N. L., & Wright, R. (Eds.). (2004). In darkness and secrecy: The Anthropology of assault sorcery and witchcraft in Amazonia. Duke University Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/532

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies  E-ISSN: 2149-1291

Copyright © Center for Ethnic and Cultural Studies (CECS) Publishing Inc.

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'ejecs.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.

SCImago Journal & Country Rank  EBSCO HostCrossRef DOI – EScience Press

upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1d/Gal... News & Views: Analyzing the DOAJ - Delta ThinkICI Journals Master Listerihplus hashtag on TwitterProQuest (@ProQuest) | Twitter