Parenting in Cultural Perspective: A Systematic Review of Paternal Role Across Cultures

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paternal role, father, cultural values


The paternal role has become one of the most topic discussions in parenting and has drawn researchers' intention worldwide. This research aimed to explore the existing literature relating to paternal roles across cultures, which analyzed 1) how the paternal roles in cultural perspectives have been researched; 2) what the parental values based on cultures mentioned in the literature are, and 3) what the topic discussed about the paternal role across culture is. The focus of the research was to find out the current trends of paternal roles across cultures from 2012 to 2022 derived from the Scopus database. The method used was a systematic review and followed PRISMA guidelines (the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis). The study revealed that most of the literature highlighted the significance of the fathers’ involvement in child-rearing in every culture (Indian, Japanese, Latino, Chinese, Indonesian, Norwegian, and Finland) and the improvement of paternal practices due to the adaptation of new cultures and the emergence of fathers' awareness to take part in their children's lives. It can be concluded that the paternal role in a collectivist culture still holds firm to the culture in parenting practices but has begun to experience a shift from the original position of breadwinner, protector, even disciplinarian and authoritarian, becoming the more involved father in child-rearing. While most fathers from individualist cultures had previously been involved in child care because they were supported by policies in their country of origin.


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Author Biographies

Ria Novianti, Universitas Riau

Ria Novianti, is a lecturer in the Department of Early Childhood Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Riau, Indonesia. She is currently a PhD student at Universitas Riau, Indonesia. Her field of interest is parenting, and her research focused on parenting and early childhood education.

Suarman, Universitas Riau

Suarman, is a professor in Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Riau. His main scientific interest concerns the study of pedagogy, curriculum, educational psychology, and teaching quality.

Nur Islami, Universitas Riau

Nur Islami, is now a teaching staff in Physics Education and is also involved as a lecturer at the doctoral level in Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Riau, Indonesia. He actively gives workshops on how to produce good scientific publications. He is also the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Educational Sciences, and also the editor of a reputable international journal as well as a reviewer for several reputable international journals.


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How to Cite

Ria Novianti, Suarman, & Nur Islami. (2023). Parenting in Cultural Perspective: A Systematic Review of Paternal Role Across Cultures. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 10(1), 22–44.



Original Manuscript
Received 2022-07-01
Accepted 2022-12-19
Published 2023-01-26