AfroBoriqua Mothering: Teaching/Learning Blackness in a Bay Area AfroPuerto Rican Community of Practice


Abstract views: 1217 / PDF downloads: 418

Authors

  • Krista L Cortes UC Berkeley

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/351

Keywords:

Afrolatinidad, blackness, mothering, Puerto Ricans, teaching/learning.

Abstract

This article puts forth the notion of Afroboriqua mothering to understand the types of conditions that allow communal, proleptic practices of blackness to exist within AfroPuerto Rican communities. Afroboriqua mothering is an act that occurs within a community of practice that queers how we understand mothering through activism that always centers blackness and anti-colonial Puerto Ricanness. Through participant-observation and a series of interviews with members of one AfroPuerto Rican community in Northern California, Afroboriqua mothering surfaced as a way to describe teaching and learning (or teaching/learning) within AfroLatinx multi-generational communities that centers blackness as an ancestral, cooperative, and activist practice.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Krista L Cortes, UC Berkeley

Phd Candidate, UC Berkeley Graduate School of Education

References

Adefarakan, T. (2011). Re-conceptualizing ‘indigenous’ from anti-colonial and Black feminist theoretical perspectives: Living and imagining indigeneity differently. Counterpoints, 379, 34-52.

Alamo-Pastrana, C. (2009). Con el eco de los barriles: Race, gender and the bomba imaginary in Puerto Rico. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 16(5), 573-600. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10702890903172736

Arroyo, J. (2010). “Roots” or the virtualities of racial imaginaries in Puerto Rico and the diaspora. Latino Studies, 8(2), 195-219. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/lst.2010.17

Baralt, G. A. (1981). Esclavos rebeldes conspiraciones y sublevaciones de esclavos en Puerto Rico (1795-1873) [Rebellious slaves conspiracies and uprising of slaves in Puerto Rico (1795-1873)]. Ediciones Huracán.

Beckett, G. H., & Kobayashi, M. (2020). A Meta-study of an Ethnographic Research in a Multicultural and Multilingual Community: Negotiations, Resources, and Dilemmas. American Journal of Qualitative Research, 4(1), 85-106. https://doi.org/10.29333/ajqr/8267 DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ajqr/8267

Brah, A. (1996). Cartographies of diaspora: Contesting identities. Routledge.

Brown, J. N. (1998). Black Liverpool, Black America, and the gendering of diasporic space. Cultural Anthropology, 13(3), 291-325. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/can.1998.13.3.291

Brown, J. N. (2009). Black Europe and the African diaspora: A discourse on location. In D. C. Hine, T. D. Keaton, & S. Small (Eds.), Black Europe and the African diaspora. University of Illinois Press.

Browne, K. (2006). Challenging queer geographies. Antipode, 38(5), 885-893. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2006.00483.x

Buchter, J., More, C., Oh-Young, C., & Stringfellow, J. (2020). Disrupting Norms to Increase Diversity of Teacher Candidates: Restraining Forces for Junior Faculty. Journal of Culture and Values in Education, 3(1), 89-103. https://doi.org/10.46303/jcve.03.01.6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.46303/jcve.03.01.6

Butler J, (1993). Critically queer. Gay and Lesbian Quarterly, 1(1), 17-32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1215/10642684-1-1-17

Cartagena, J. (2004). When Bomba becomes the national music of the Puerto Rico nation. Centro Journal, 16(1), 14-35.

Center for Puerto Rican Studies. (2016). Puerto Ricans in California, the United States, and Puerto Rico, 2014. The Center for Puerto Rican Studies Data Sheet.

Cole, M. (1996). Interacting minds in a life-span perspective: A cultural-historical approach to culture and cognitive development. In P. Baltes & U. Staudinger (Eds.), Interactive minds (pp. 59–87). Cambridge University Press.

Collins, P. H. (1990). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. Unwin Hyman.

Collins, P.H. (1991). The meaning of motherhood in Black culture. In R. Staples (Ed.), The Black family: Essays and studies. Wadsworth.

Cortes, K.L. (2019). Between Blackness and Africanness: Indexing Puerto Rican identity through discourse in Northern California. In M.K. Clark, P.W. Mnyandu, & L. Azalia (Eds.) Pan African Spaces: Essays on Black Transnationalism. Lexington Press.

De Lauretis, T. (1991). Queer theory: Lesbian and gay sexualities. Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies, 3(3), 3-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1215/10407391-3-2-iii

Dei, G. J. S. (2000). Rethinking the role of indigenous knowledges in the academy. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 4(2), 111-132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/136031100284849

Dewi Oka, C. (2016). Mothering as revolutionary praxis. In A. P. Gumbs, C. Martens, & M. Williams (Eds.), Revolutionary Mothering: Love on the Front Lines (pp. 50-57). PM Press.

Díaz Soler, L. M. (1994). Puerto Rico: Desde sus orígenes hasta el cese de la dominación Española. San Juan: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Díaz Soler, L.M. (2000). Historia de la esclavitud negra en Puerto Rico. San Juan: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico. doi:10.108 0/00131725.2014.850980

Duany, J. (2001). Making Indians out of Blacks: The revitalization of Taíno identity in contemporary Puerto Rico. In G. Haslip-Viera (Ed.), Taíno revival: Critical perspectives on Puerto Rican identity and cultural politics (pp. 55- 82). Markus Wiener

Duong, K. (2012). What does queer theory teach us about intersectionality? Politics & Gender, 8(3), 370-386. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1743923X12000360

Edwards, A. (2000). Community mothering: The relationship between mothering and the community work of Black women. Journal of the Association for Research on Mothering, 2(2), 87–100.

Fanon, F. (1967) Black Skin, white masks, trans. Charles L. Markmann. New York: Grove Press.

Foster, H. J. (1983). African patterns in Afro-American family. Journal of Black Studies, 14, 201-232. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002193478301400205

Fuentes, E. (2013). Political mothering: Latina and African American mothers in the struggle for educational justice. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 44(3), 304-319. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/aeq.12027

Garcia-Louis, C. & Cortes, K.L. (2020). Rejecting black and rejected back: AfroLatinx college students’ experiences with anti-AfroLatinidad. Journal of Latinos and Education. DOI: 10.1080/15348431.2020.1731692 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15348431.2020.1731692

Gilkes, C. T. (1980). 'Holding back the ocean with a broom': Black women and community work. In L. Rodgers-Rose (Ed.), The Black woman (pp. 217-231). Sage.

Godreau, I. (2002). Changing space, making race: Distance, nostalgia, and the folklorization of blackness in Puerto Rico. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 9(3), 281-304. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10702890213969

Godreau, I. P. (2015). Scripts of blackness: Race, cultural nationalism, and US colonialism in Puerto Rico. University of Illinois Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5406/illinois/9780252038907.001.0001

Goodson, I., & Sikes, P. (2001). Life history research in educational settings: Learning from lives. Open University Press.

Gumbs, A. P. (2016). M/other ourselves: A Black queer feminist genealogy for radical mothering. In A. P. Gumbs, C. Martens, & M. Williams (Eds.), Revolutionary Mothering: Love on the Front Lines. PM Press.

Gutiérrez, K. D. & Johnson, P.R. (2017). Understanding identity sampling and cultural repertoires: Advancing an historicizing and syncretic system of teaching and learning in justice pedagogies. In D. Paris & H. S. Alim (Eds.), Culturally sustaining pedagogies: Teaching and learning for justice in a changing world. Teachers College Press.

Gutiérrez, K. D., & Jurow, A. S. (2016): Social design experiments: Toward equity by design. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 25(4), 565-598. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508406.2016.1204548 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10508406.2016.1204548

Gutiérrez, K. D., & Rogoff, B. (2003). Cultural ways of learning: Individual traits or repertoires of practice. Educational Researcher, 32(5), 19-25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X032005019

Gutiérrez, K. D., Cortes, K., Cortez, A., DiGiacomo, D., Higgs, J., Johnson, P., Lizárraga J. R., Mendoza, E., Tien, J., & Vakil, S. (2017). Replacing representation with imagination: Finding ingenuity in everyday practices. Review of Research in Education, 41(1), 30-60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X16687523

Gutiérrez, K., (2016). Designing resilient ecologies: Social design experiments and a new social imagination. Educational Researcher, 45(3), 187-196. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X16645430

Halpern, C. (2018). Multicultural for who? A review of a comprehensive multicultural textbook. Journal of Culture and Values in Education, 1(2), 58-62. https://doi.org/10.46303/jcve.01.02.4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.46303/jcve.01.02.4

Haslip-Viera, G. (Ed.). (2001). Taíno revival: Critical perspectives on Puerto Rican identity and cultural politics. Markus Wiener Publishers.

Hays, W. C., & Mindel, C. H. (1973). Extended kinship relations in Black and White families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51-57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/351096

Hintzen, P. (2001). West Indian in the West: Self-representations in an immigrant community. New York University Press.

hooks, b. (1994). Feminist theory: From margin to center. South End Press.

James, W. Y. (2019). Imprint of Racism: White Adult Males’ Transformational Experience from Racial Antipathy to Racial Reconciliation. American Journal of Qualitative Research, 3(1), 93-116. https://doi.org/10.29333/ajqr/5813 DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ajqr/5813

Kopish, M. A. (2016). Preparing globally competent teacher candidates through cross-cultural experiential learning. Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 7(2), 75-108.

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815355

Manuel, P. L. (1994). Puerto Rican music and cultural identity: Creative appropriation of Cuban sources from danza to salsa. Ethnomusicology, 38(2), 249-80. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/851740

McDonald, K. B. (1997). Black activist mothering: A historical intersection of race, gender, and class. Gender & Society, 11(6), 773-795. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/089124397011006004

Naples, N. A. (1992). Activist mothering: Cross-generational continuity in the community work of women from low-income urban neighborhoods. Gender & Society, 6(3), 441-463. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/089124392006003006

Nasir, N. I. S., & Hand, V. M. (2006). Exploring sociocultural perspectives on race, culture, and learning. Review of Educational Research, 76(4), 449-475. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543076004449

Nieto, S. (2014). Introduction to “diversity, globalization, and education”. The Educational Forum, 78, 3–6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00131725.2014.850980

O’Reilly, A. (2000). I come from a long line of Uppity irate black women: African-American feminist thought on motherhood, the motherline, and the mother-daughter relationship. In A. O’Reilly & S. Abbey (Eds.), Mothers and daughters: Connection, empowerment, and transformation (pp. 143–59). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Olsen, L. (1997). Made in America: Immigrant students in our public schools. New York, NY: The New Press.

Pacheco, M. (2012). Learning in/through everyday resistance: A cultural-historical perspective on community resources and curriculum. Educational Researcher, 41(4), 121-132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X12442982

Packer, M. J., & Goicoechea, J. (2000). Sociocultural and constructivist theories of learning: Ontology, not just epistemology. Educational Psychologist, 35(4), 227-241. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3504_02

Peterson, V. S. (2014). Family matters: How queering the intimate queers the international. International Studies Review, 16(4), 604-608. https://doi.org/10.1111/misr.12185 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/misr.12185

Rivera, R. Z. (2007). Will the “real” Puerto Rican culture please stand up? Thoughts on cultural nationalism. In F. Negron-Muntaner (Ed.), None of the above: Puerto Ricans in the global era (pp. 217-231). Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230604360_17

Rivera, R. Z. (2010). New York bomba: Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and a bridge called Haiti. Rhythms of the Afro-Atlantic world: Rituals and remembrances, 178-199.

Rodriguez-Silva, I. (2012). Silencing race: Disentangling blackness, colonialism, and national identities in Puerto Rico. St. Martin’s Press LLC.

Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive development in social context. Oxford University Press.

Sakho, J. R. (2017). Black activist mothering: Teach me about what teaches you. Western Journal of Black Studies, 41(1/2), 6-19.

Saxe, G. B. (1999). Cognition, development, and cultural practices. New Directions for Child & Adolescent Development, 83, 19-35. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/cd.23219998304

Schneider, D. M. (1980). American kinship: A cultural account. University of Chicago Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226227092.001.0001

Telles, E. (2014). Pigmentocracies: Ethnicity, race, and color in Latin America. Chapel Hill: UNC Press Books.

Tölölyan, K. (1991). The nation-state and its others: In lieu of a preface. Diaspora, 1, 3–7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/dsp.1991.0008

Vega, M. M. (1999). The ancestral sacred creative impulse of Africa and the African diaspora: Ase, the nexus of the Black global aesthetic. Lenox Avenue: A Journal of Interarts Inquiry, 5, 45-57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/4177077

Vossoughi, S., & Gutiérrez, K. (2014). Studying movement, hybridity, and change: Toward a multi-sited sensibility for research on learning across contexts and borders. National Society for the Study of Education, 113(2), 603-632. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/016146811411601413

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society. Harvard University Press.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). The Collected Works of L. S. Vygotsky: Vol. 1. Problems of General Psychology. Plenum Press.

Wagenheim, K., & de Wagenheim, O. J. (Eds.). (2008). The Puerto Ricans: A documentary history. Doubleday.

Weheliye, A. G. (2009). My volk to come: Peoplehood in recent diaspora discourse and Afro-German popular music. Black Europe and the African Diaspora, 120, 161.

Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning as a social system. Systems Thinker, 9(5), 2-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803932

Wertsch, J. V. (1998). Mind as action. Oxford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195117530.001.0001

Downloads

Published

2020-07-11

How to Cite

Cortes, K. L. (2020). AfroBoriqua Mothering: Teaching/Learning Blackness in a Bay Area AfroPuerto Rican Community of Practice. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 7(2), 127–146. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/351

Issue

Section

Original Manuscript