Intercultural Relations Among Guinean Immigrants Living in Portugal: Testing Multiculturalism, Contact, and Integration Hypotheses

Félix Neto


This study tests several specific predictions derived from three general core hypotheses of intercultural relations (multiculturalism, contact, and integration hypotheses). The participants were 405 migrants from Guinea-Bissau (51 percent women). Their average age was 38 years. The average length of stay in Portugal was 18 years. Data collection involved the completion of questionnaires to measure multicultural ideology, security, cultural identity, contact, perceived discrimination, acculturation strategies, mental health problems, sociocultural adaptation, and tolerance. In concert with the multiculturalism hypothesis, security and cultural identity positively predicted multicultural ideology. The contact hypothesis was partially confirmed given that intercultural contact did not predict perceived discrimination, although contact predicted national identity. Regarding the integration hypothesis, integration strategy predicted psychological and intercultural adaptations, while the predictors of sociocultural adaptation were assimilation and marginalization. Hence, the integration hypothesis obtained partial support for migrants from Guinea-Bissau residing in Portugal. Finally, some implications of the findings are discussed. This study contributes to extending the integration hypothesis to a recently suggested new form of adaptation, intercultural adaptation. Feelings of being secure in the larger society and one’s identity contributes to higher acceptance of diversity.


acculturation, contact, integration, intercultural relations, multicultural ideology

Full Text:



Abranches, M. (2014). Remitting wealth, reciprocating health? The “travel” of the land from Guinea-Bissau to Portugal. American Ethnologist, 41, 261-275.

Abu-Rayya, H. M., & Sam, D. L. (2017). Is integration the best way to acculturate? A reexamination of the bicultural-adaptation relationship in the “ICSEY” data set using the bilineal method. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48, 287-293.

Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Addison-Wesley.

Beckett, G. H., & Kobayashi, M. (2020). A Meta-study of an Ethnographic Research in a Multicultural and Multilingual Community: Negotiations, Resources, and Dilemmas. American Journal of Qualitative Research, 4(1), 85-106.

Berry, J. W. (2006). Mutual attitudes among immigrants and ethnocultural groups in Canada. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 719-734.

Berry, J. W. (2013). Research on multiculturalism in Canada. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37, 663-675.

Berry, J. W. (2015, June). Intercultural adaptation to acculturation [Paper presentation]. Annual Conference, Canadian Psychological Association Annual Conference, Ottawa, Canada.

Berry, J. W. (2017). Mutual intercultural relations in plural societies. Cambridge University Press.

Berry, J. W. (2020). How shall we all live together? In S. Safdar, C. Kwantes, & W. Friedlmeier (Eds.), Wiser world with multiculturalism: Proceedings from the 24th Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology.

Berry, J. W., & Hou, F. (2017). Acculturation, discrimination and wellbeing among second generation of immigrants in Canada. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 61, 29-39.

Berry, J. W., & Kalin, R. (1995). Multicultural and ethnic attitudes in Canada: An overview of the 1991 national survey. Canadian Journal of Behavioral & Science, 27, 301-320.

Berry, J. W., & Sabatier, C. (2010). Acculturation, discrimination, and adaptation among second generation immigrant youth in Montreal and Paris. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34, 191-207.

Berry, J. W., Kalin, R., & Taylor, D. (1977). Multiculturalism and ethnic attitudes in Canada. Supply & Services.

Berry, J. W., Kim, U., Power, S., Young, M., & Bujaki, M. (1989). Acculturation attitudes in plural societies. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 38, 185-206.

Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., Sam, D. L. & Vedder, P. (Eds.). (2006). Immigrant youth in cultural transition: Acculturation, identity, and adaptation across national contexts. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bourhis, R., Moise, C., Perrault, S., & Senecal, S. (1997). Towards an interactive acculturation model: A social psychological approach. International Journal of Psychology, 32, 369-386.

Brown, R., & Zagefka, H. (2011). The dynamics of acculturation: An intergroup perspective. In J. M. Olson & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 44, pp. 129–184). Academic Press.

Coulmas, F. (2019). Identity: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press.

CountryWatch. (2020). Guinea-Bissau country review. CountryWatch, Inc.

Demes, K. A., & Geeraert, N. (2014). Measures matter: Scales for adaptation, cultural distance, and acculturation revisited. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 91-109.

Field, A. (2017). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (5th ed.). SAGE.

Fleischmann, F., & Verkuyten, M. (2016). Dual identity among immigrants: Comparing different conceptualizations, their measurements, and implications. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 22(2), 151.

Gurer, C. (2019). Refugee Perspectives on Integration in Germany. American Journal of Qualitative Research, 3(2), 52-70.

Hanke, K., Egmont, M., Rohmann, A., & Boehnke, K. (2017). Intercultural relations in Germany. In J. W. Berry (Ed.), Mutual intercultural relations (pp. 145-166). Cambridge University Press.

Hui, B. P. H., Chen, C. X., Leung, C. M., & Berry, J. W. (2015). Facilitating adaptation and intercultural contact: The role of bicultural integration and multicultural ideology in dominant and non-dominant groups. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 45, 70-84.

Inguglia, C., Musso, P., & Lo Coco, A. (2017). Intercultural relations in Italy. In J. W. Berry (Ed.), Mutual intercultural relations (pp. 210-230). Cambridge University Press.

Inguglia, C., Musso, P., Albiero, P., Cassibba, R., Iannello, N. M., Lo Cricchio, M, G., Liga, F., Berry, J. W., & Lo Coco, A. (2020). Mutual intercultural relations among immigrant and autochthonous youth in Italy: Testing the integration, multiculturalism, and contact hypotheses. Ricerche di Psicologia, 1, 45-79.

Jasinskaja-Lahati, I., Horencjyk, G., & Kimunen, T. (2011). Time and context in the relationship between acculturation attitudes and adaptation among Russia-speaking immigrants in Finland and Israel. Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies, 37, 1423-1440.

Lee, D. L., & Ahn, S. (2011). Discrimination against Latina/os: A meta-analysis of individual-level resources and outcomes. The Counseling Psychologist, 40, 28-65.

Machado, L. F. (2002). Contrastes e continuidades, migracão, etnicidade e integracão dos guineenses em Portugal [Contrasts and continuities, migration, ethnicity and integration of Guineans in Portugal]. Celta Editora.

Motti-Stefanidi, F. (2018). Resilience among immigrant youth: The role of culture, development and acculturation. Developmental Review, 50, 99-109.

Neto, F. (2002). Acculturation strategies among adolescents from immigrant families in Portugal. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26, 17-38.

Neto, F. (2006). Psycho-social predictors of perceived discrimination among adolescents of immigrant background: A Portuguese study. Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies, 32, 89-109.

Neto, F. (2009a). Predictors of mental health among adolescents from immigrant families in Portugal. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 375-385.

Neto, F. (2009b). Are attitudes of young Portuguese towards immigration also hardening? A comparison between 1999 and 2006. In A. Gari & K. Mylonas (Eds.), Quod erat demonstrandum: From Herodotus’ ethnographioc journeys to cross-cultural research (pp. 255- 264). Pedio Books Publishing.

Neto, F. (2010). Portugal intercultural: Aculturação e adaptação de jovens de origem imigrante [Intercultural Portugal: Acculturation and adaptation of young people of immigrant origin]. Livpsic.

Neto, F. (2019). Intercultural relations among Ukrainian immigrants living in Portugal. Universitas Psychologica, 18, 1-11.

Neto, F. (2020). Intercultural relations among Cape Verdean immigrants living in Portugal. Journal of International Migration & Integration, 21, 765-780.

Neto, F., & Fonseca, A. C. (2016). The satisfaction with migration life scale. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 54, 47-54.

Neto, F., & Neto, J. (2017). Intercultural relations in Portugal. In J. W. Berry (Ed.), Mutual intercultural relations (pp. 249-266). Cambridge University Press.

Neto, F., & Wilks, D. (2017). Predictors of psychological adaptation of Cape Verdean students in Portugal. Journal of College Student Development, 58, 1087-1100.

Neto, F., Pinto, M. C., & Mullet, E. (2019). Can music reduce national prejudice? A test of a cross-cultural musical education programme. Psychology of Music, 47(5), 747-756.

Nguyen, A. M., & Benet-Martinez, V. (2013). Biculturalism and adjustment: A meta-analysis. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 122-159.

Paluck, E., L., Green, S., Green, D. (2019). The contact hypothesis re-evaluated. Behavioural Public Policy, 3, 129-158.

Pavlopoulos, V., & Motti-Stefanidi, F. (2017). Intercultural relations in Greece. In J. W. Berry (Ed.), Mutual intercultural relations (pp. 187-209). Cambridge University Press.

Pettigrew, T. F. (2008). Future directions for intergroup contact theory and research. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32, 187-199.

Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 90, 751-783.

Phinney, J. (1992). The multigroup ethnic identity measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 156-176.

Phinney, J. (2003). Ethnic identity and acculturation. In K. M. Chun, P. B. Organista, & G. Marín (Eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 63-81). American Psychological Association.

Pires, S. (2013). Guinea-Bissau immigrant transnationalism in Portugal: A substitute for a failed state? African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal, 6, 145-173,

Sam, D. L., Veitk, R., Makarova, M., & Raudsepp, M. (2017). Intercultural relations in Norway. In J. W. Berry (Ed.), Mutual intercultural relations in plural societies (pp. 125-144). Cambridge University Press.

Schotte, K., Stanat, P., & Edele, A. (2018). Is integration always most adaptive? The role of cultural identity in academic achievement and in psychological adaptation of immigrant students in Germany. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 47, 16-37.

Sequeira Neto, J. (2014). Cultural competence among Ukrainian economic immigrants living in Portugal [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Universidade do Porto.

Serviço de Estrangeiros e Fronteiras. (2019). Relatório de imigração, fronteira e asilo 2018 [Immigration, Border and Asylum Report 2018]. SEF.

Shuangyun, Y., & Hongxia, L. (2020). Knowledge mapping of ethnic identity and acculturation based on the method of bibliometric. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Studies, 7, 17-33.

Smith, R., & Khawaja, N. (2011). A review of the acculturation experiences of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 699-713.

Suh, H. N., Flores, L. Y., & Wang, K. T. (2019). Perceived discrimination, ethnic identity, and mental distress among Asian international students in Korea. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 50, 991-1007.

Tip, L., Zagefka, H., González, R., Brown, R., Cinniralla, M., & Na, X. (2012). Is support for multiculturalism threatened by … threat itself? International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36, 22-30.

Titzmann, P. F., Brenick, A., & Silbereisen, R. K. (2015). Friendships fighting prejudice: A longitudinal perspective on adolescents’ cross-group friendships with immigrants. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 44, 1318-1331. 10.1007/s10964-015-0256-6.

Tran, T., & Bifuh-Ambe, E. (2021). Ethnic identity and second-generation Vietnamese American adolescents. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Studies, 8, 167-186.

Vedder, P., Wenink, E., & van Geel, M. (2017). Intergroup contact and prejudice between Dutch majority and Muslim minority youth in the Netherlands. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 23, 477-485. 10.1037/cdp0000150.

Verkuyten, M. (2018). The social psychology of ethnic identity (2nd ed.). Psychology Press.

Ward, C. (2013). Probing identity, integration and adaptation: Big questions, little answers. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37, 391-404.

Ward, C., & Geeraert, N. (2016). Advancing acculturation theory and research: The acculturation process in its ecological context. Current Opinion in Psychology, 8, 98-104.

Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1999). The measurement of sociocultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23, 659-677.

Ward, C., & Masgoret, A. M. (2008). Attitudes toward immigrants, immigration, and multiculturalism in New Zealand: A social psychological analysis. International Migration Review, 42, 227-248.

Wilson, J., Ward, C., & Fisher, R. (2013). Beyond culture learning theory: What can personality tell us about cultural competence? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 900-927.

Zhou, S., Page-Gould, E., Aron, A., Moyer, A., & Hewstone, M. (2019). The extended contact hypothesis: A meta-analysis on 20 years of research. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 23, 132-160.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies E-ISSN: 2149-1291

Copyright © Center for Ethnic and Cultural Studies (CECS) Publishing Inc.

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.

SCImago Journal & Country Rank EBSCO HostCrossRef DOI – EScience Press ICI Journals Master Listerihplus hashtag on TwitterProQuest (@ProQuest) | Twitter