Ethnic Influence of Colleagues and Friends on Choices of News Media Channels: The Case of Catholic Church Leaders in Nairobi, Kenya


Abstract views: 6201 / PDF downloads: 349

Authors

  • Don Bosco Onyalla Daystar University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/110

Keywords:

Church leaders, colleagues and friends, ethnic influence, news media, social identity theory, uses and gratifications theory

Abstract

People are continually moving across societies and forming communities consisting of members from different cultures, races, nationalities, religions, languages, among other distinguishing identities. Many communities across the globe are characterized by ethnic diversity, the resultant challenge of interpersonal conflicts and other group dynamics felt in virtually all sectors of society, including religious institutions. Founded on uses and gratifications and social identity theories, this study examined the extent to which the ethnicity of colleagues and friends may influence religious leaders’ choice of and exposure to news media channels. The contemporary challenge of ethnic hate, bias, and prejudice in Africa and particularly Kenya informed the study’s central problem. The study sampled Catholic Church leaders in Nairobi, Kenya and employed 16 elite interviews and three focus group discussions. Collected data revealed that colleagues and friends have a mutual influence over choosing news channels. However, the ethnicity of these colleagues and friends did not seem to be the principal factor. The knowledge of how Church leaders can be influenced by the ethnicity of their colleagues and friends raised awareness of integrity and credibility as vital components of not only religious leadership but also family life in the religious communities of clergymen and nuns in Nairobi, Kenya. The study extended the ordinary meaning of family as consisting of a group of genetically related people formed through biological reproduction to include adults who accept to live together as family because of their religious choices.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Don Bosco Onyalla, Daystar University

Doctoral candidate, School of Communication, Language, and Performing Arts.

References

Aday, S., Farrell, H., Lynch, M., Sides, J., & Freelon, D. (2012, July). New media and conflict after the

Arab Spring. United States Institute of Peace, 80, 1-26.

Ahmed, M. (2016). Ethnicity, identity and group vitality: A study of Burushos of Srinagar. Journal of DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/51

Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 3(1), 1-10.

Akpan, L. (2018). The political undertone in the development of nomadic education in Africa: Lessons from Nigeria. American Journal of Qualitative Research, 2(1), 1-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ajqr/5791

Althaus, S. L., & Tewksbury, D. (2000). Patterns of Internet and traditional news media use in a networked community. Political Communication, 17, 21-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/105846000198495 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/105846000198495

Aluko, M. (2003). The ethnic problem in Africa. The Anthropologist, 5(2), 93-99. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2003.11890785 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2003.11890785

Anderson, J. (2016). Competing identities: Uniformity verses diversity in the Roman Catholic priesthood.In S. J. Hunt, & A. K. Yip (Eds.), The Ashgate research companion to contemporary religion and sexuality (pp. 93-106). New York, NY: Routledge.

Apollos, M. (2001). Ethnicity, violence and democracy. Africa Development, 26(1/2), 99-144. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ad.v26i1.22134 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/ad.v26i1.22134

Ashforth, B. E., Harrison, S. H., & Corley, K. G. (2008). Identification in organizations: An examination of four fundamental questions. Journal of Management, 34, 325-374.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0149206308316059 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206308316059

Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management: The Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 20-39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1989.4278999

Aydin, H. (2013). A literature-based approaches on multicultural education. The Anthropologist, 16(1-2), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2013.11891333

-44.

Azarya, V. (2003). Ethnicity and conflict management in post-colonial Africa. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 9(3), 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1080/13537110412331301455 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13537110412331301455

Bannon, A., Miguel, E., & Posner, D. N. (2004). Sources of ethnic identification in Africa. Afrobarometer Working Papers, 44, 1-24. Retrieved from http://afrobarometer.org/sites/default/files/publications/Working%20paper/AfropaperNo44.pdf

Barki, H., & Hartwick, J. (2004). Conceptualizing the construct of interpersonal conflict. International Journal of Conflict Management, 15(3), 216-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb022913 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/eb022913

Basedau, M., Erdmann, G., Lay, J., & Stroh, A. (462-489). Ethnicity and party preference in sub-Saharan Africa. Democratization, 18(2), 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2011.553366 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2011.553366

Berelson, B. (1949). What "missing the newspaper" means. In P. F. Lazarsfeld, & F. N. Stanton (Eds.), Communications research 1948-1949 (pp. 111-129). New York, NY: Harper & Brothers.

Berghe, P. L. (1983). Class, race and ethnicity in Africa. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 6(2), 221-236. doi:10.1080/01419870.1983.9993409 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.1983.9993409

Bineham, J. L. (1988). A historical account of the hypodermic model in mass communication. Communication Monographs, 55, 230-246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758809376169 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03637758809376169

Blake, L., Richards, M., & Golombok, S. (2014). The families of assisted reproduction and adoption. In F. Baylis, & C. McLeod (Eds.), Family-making: Contemporary ethical challenges (pp. 64-88). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656066.003.0005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656066.003.0005

Bogart, L. (1965). The mass media and the blue-collar worker. In A. Bennett, & W. Gomberg (Eds.), Blue-collar world: Studies of the American worker. New Jersey, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bratić, V. (2008). Examining peace-oriented media in areas of violent conflict. The International

Communication Gazette 70(6), 487-503. Doi: 10.1177/1748048508096397 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048508096397

Bratton, M., & Kimenyi, M. S. (2008). Voting in Kenya: Putting ethnicity in perspective. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 1-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17531050802058401 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17531050802058401

Bratton, M., Bhavnani, R., & Chen, T. H. (2012). Voting intentions in Africa: Ethnic, economic or partisan? Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 50(1), 27-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14662043.2012.642121 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14662043.2012.642121

Browne, M., Stack, L., & Ziyadah, M. (2015). Streets to screens: Conflict, social media and the news. Information, Communication & Society, 18(11), 1339-1347. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2015.1071862 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2015.1071862

Campbell, S. (2014). What is qualitative research? Clinical Laboratory Science, 27(1), 3. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/openview/529b14eee65df750058506e8d60185a0/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=35972

Carney, J. J. (2008). Waters of baptism, blood of tribalism? Reconsidering Ecclesia in Africa and the Lineamenta for the second African Synod in the shadow of the 1994 Rwandan genocide. African Ecclesial Review, 50(1), 9-30.

Carrier, N., & Kochore, H. H. (2014). Navigating ethnicity and electoral politics in Northern Kenya: The case of the 2013 election. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 8(1), 135-152. https://doi.org/10.1080/17531055.2013.871181 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17531055.2013.871181

Caselli, F., & Coleman, W. (2013). On the theory of ethnic conflict. Journal of the European Economic Association, 11, 161-192. doi:10.1111/j.1542-4774.2012.01103.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-4774.2012.01103.x

Chege, M. (2010). Ethnic pluralism and national governance in Africa: A survey. In K. Njogu, K. Ngeta, & M. Wanjau (Eds.), Ethnic diversity in Eastern Africa: Opportunities and challenges (pp. 3-17). Nairobi, Kenya: Twaweza Communications. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvk3gp8v.5

Chiang, L. L., Xu, A., Kim, J., Tang, L. R., & Manthiou, A. (2017). Investigating festivals and events as social gatherings: The application of social identity theory. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 34(6), 779-792. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2016.1233927 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2016.1233927

Chin, J. L. (2013). Diversity leadership: Influence of ethnicity, gender, and minority status. Open Journal of Leadership, 2(1), 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2013.21001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2013.21001

Chogugudza, C. (2008, January). Ethnicity main cause of instabililty, civil conflict and poverty in Africa. Africa Resource. Retrieved from https://www.africaresource.com/essays-a-reviews/politics/478-ethnicity-main-cause-of-instability-civil-conflict-and-poverty-in-africa

Chouliaraki, L. (2015). Digital witnessing in war journalism: The case of post-Arab spring conflicts. Popular Communication: The International Journal of Media and Culture, 13(2), 105-119. https://doi.org/10.1080/15405702.2015.1021467 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15405702.2015.1021467

Corona, R., Velazquez, E., McDonald, S. E., Avila, M., Neff, M., Iglesias, A., & Halfond, R. (2017). Ethnic labels, pride, and challenges: A qualitative study of Latinx youth living in a new Latinx destination community. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 4(1), 1-13. Retrieved from http://www.ejecs.org/index.php/JECS/article/view/67/pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/67

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J. W., & Miller, D. L. (2000). Determining validity in qualitative inquiry. Theory into Practice, 39(3), 124-130. Retrieved from https://people.ucsc.edu/~ktellez/Creswell_validity2000.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip3903_2

Damgaci, F., & Aydin, H. (2013). Faculty members' perception on multicultural education. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 12(45), 325-341

Daymon, C., & Holloway, I. (2002). Qualitative research methods in public relations and marketing communications. Florence, KY: Routledge.

Deephouse, D. L., & Jaskiewicz, P. (2013). Do family firms have better reputations than non-

family firms? An integration of socioemotional wealth and social identity theories. Journal of Management Studies, 50(3), 337-360. Doi:10.1111/joms.12015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/joms.12015

Desforges, A. (1999). Leave none to tell the story: Genocide in Rwanda. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved from https://www1.essex.ac.uk/armedcon/story_id/Leave%20None%20to%20tell%20the%20story-%20Genocide%20in%20Rwanda.pdf

Dillard, J. P., & Knobloch, L. K. (2011). Interpersonal influence. In M. L. Knapp, & J. A. Daly (Eds.), The sage handbook of interpersonal communication (pp. 389-422). (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Dimmick, J., Chen, Y., & Li, Z. (2004). Competition between the Internet and traditional news media: The gratification-opportunities niche dimension. The Journal of Media Economics, 17(1), 19-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327736me1701_2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327736me1701_2

Dolan, R., Conduit, J., Fahy, J., & Goodman, S. (2016). Social media engagement behavior: A uses and gratification perspective. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 24(3-4), 261-277. https://doi.org/10.1080/0965254X.2015.1095222 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0965254X.2015.1095222

Dozier, D. M., & Rice, R. E. (1984). Rival theories of electronic newsgathering. In R. E. Rice (Ed.), The new media: Communication, research, and technology (pp. 103-128). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Esipisu, M., & Khaguli, I. E. (2009). Eyes of Democracy: The Media and Elections. London:

Commonwealth Secretariat.

Ferree, K. E., Gibson, C. C., & Long, J. D. (2014). Voting behavior and electoral irregularities in Kenya's 2013 election. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 8(1), 153-172. https://doi.org/10.1080/17531055.2013.871182 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17531055.2013.871182

Ferrucci, P., & Tandoc, E. C. (2018). The spiral of stereotyping: Social identity theory and NFL quarterbacks. Howard Journal of Communications, 29(2), 107-125. https://doi.org/10.1080/10646175.2017.1315693 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10646175.2017.1315693

Florenthal, B. (2015). Applying uses and gratifications theory to students' LinkedIn usage. Young Consumers, 16(1), 17-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/YC-12-2013-00416 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/YC-12-2013-00416

Gan, C., & Wang, W. (2015). Uses and gratifications of social media: A comparison of microblog and WeChat. Journal of Systems and Information Technology, 17(4), 351-363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JSIT-06-2015-0052 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JSIT-06-2015-0052

Getui, N. M. (1999). At variance but in harmony. In A. Jong (Ed.), Ethnicity: Blessing or curse (pp. 9-19). Nairobi, Kenya: Paulines Publications Africa.

Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597-607. Retrieved from https://nsuworks.nova.edu./tqr/vol8/iss4/6

Guan, M., & So, J. (2016). Influence of social identity on self-efficacy beliefs through perceived social support: A social identity theory perspective. Communication Studies, 67(5), 588-604. https://doi.org/10.1080/10510974.2016.1239645 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10510974.2016.1239645

Halawa, A., Ai, S., & Ma, Z. (2018). Association between ethnicity and dietary behaviors in Chinese Han and Hui nationalities. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 4(2), 65-80. Retrieved from http://www.ejecs.org/index.php/JECS/article/view/75/pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/75

Harding, J. (2013). Qualitative data analysis from start to finish. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Harkness, K. A. (2016). The ethnic army and the state: Explaining coup traps and the difficulties of democratization in Africa. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 60(4), 587-616. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022002714545332 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002714545332

Hayne, J. (2009). Conflict, conflict resolution and peace-building: The role of religion in Mozambique, Nigeria and Cambodia. Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 47(1), 52-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14662040802659033 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14662040802659033

Herzog, H. (1944). What do we really know about daytime serial listeners? In P. F. Lazarsfeld, & F. N. Stanton (Eds.), Radio research 1942-1943 (pp. 3-33). New York, NY: Duell, Sloan and Pearce.

Heywood, E. (2015). Comparative representations of the Middle East: National values and Russian state-aligned media. Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe, 23(2-3), 195–211. https://doi.org/10.1080/0965156X.2015.1116792 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0965156X.2015.1116792

Hornsey, M. J. (2008). Social identity theory and self-categorization theory: A historical review. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(1), 201-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2007.00066.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2007.00066.x

Hutchison, J. C. (2009). Servanthood: Jesus' countercultural call to Christian leaders. Bibliotheca Sacra, 166, 53-69.

Ireri, K. (2012). Newspaper Visibility of Members of Parliament in Kenya. Journalism and

Mass Communication, 2(7), 717-734.

Ismail, J. A., & Deane, J. (2008). The 2007 general election in Kenya and its aftermath: The role DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161208319510

of local language media. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 13(3), 319-327. 10.1177/1940161208319510

Jacobs, W., Goodson, P., Barry, A. E., McLeroy, K. R., McKyer, E. L. J., & Valente, T. W. (2017). Adolescent social networks and alcohol use: Variability by gender and type. Substance Use & Misuse, 52(4), 477-487. doi:10.1080/10826084.2016.1245333 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2016.1245333

Jensen, K. B. (2002). Media effects: Quantitative traditions. In K. B. Jensen (Ed.), A handbook of media and communication research: Qualitative and quantitative methodologies (pp. 138-155). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Kagema, J. (2018). The School Curriculum and Its Influence on Teacher Motivation in Curriculum Implementation in Kenya. Journal of Culture and Values in Education, 1(1), 9-25. Retrieved from http://cultureandvalues.org/index.php/JCV/article/view/3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.46303/jcve.01.01.2

Kamaara, E. (2010). Towards Christian national identity in Africa: A historical perspective to the challenge of ethnicity to the Church in Kenya. Studies in World Christianity, 16(2), 126-144. http://dx.doi.org/10.3366/swc.2010.0002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3366/swc.2010.0002

Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. (1974). Uses and gratifications research. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 37(4), 509-523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/268109 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/268109

Kılınç, E. & Tarman, B. (2018). Global citizenship vs. patriotism: The correlation between pre-service teachers’ perception of patriotism and global citizenship. In A. Rapoport (Ed.), Competing Frameworks: Global and National in Citizenship Education. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Kim, Y. Y., & McKay-Semmler, K. (2009). Interethnic communication among college students: An examination of behavioral and contextual factors. Chicago, IL: International Communication Association.

Kimenyi, M. S., & Romero, R. G. (2008). Tribalism as a minimax-regret strategy: Evidence from voting

in the 2007 Kenyan elections. Afrobarometer Working Papers, 103, 1-15.

Korostelina, K. (2014). Intergroup identity insults: A social identity theory perspective. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 14, 214–229. doi:10.1080/15283488.2014.921170 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15283488.2014.921170

Krinsky, J., & Crossley, N. (2014). Social movements and social networks: Introduction. Social Movement Studies, 13(1), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2013.862787 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2013.862787

Lazzolino, G., & Stremlau, N. (2017). New media and governance in conflict. Third World Quarterly, 38(10), 2242-2257. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2017.1333415 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2017.1333415

Lee, M. (2012). On studying interethnic communication between the Hakka and other ethnic groups in Taiwan. International Communication Studies, 21(3), 29-40. Retrieved from https://web.uri.edu/iaics/files/03Lee.pdf

Lee, S., Chung, J. E., & Park, N. (2018). Network environments and well-being: An examination of personal network structure, social capital, and perceived social support. Health Communication, 33(1), 22-31. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2016.1242032 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2016.1242032

Lentz, C. (2000). Colonial constructions and African initiatives: The history of ethnicity in Northwestern Ghana. Ethnos, 65(1), 107-136. https://doi.org/10.1080/001418400360661 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/001418400360661

Lichtenstein, A., & Rosenfeld, L. (1983). Uses and misuses of gratifications research: An explication of media functions. Communication Research, 10(1), 97-109. https://doi.org/10.1177/009365083010001005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/009365083010001005

Longman, T. (2001). Church politics and the genocide in Rwanda. Journal of Religion in Africa, 31(2), 163-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157006601X00112 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/157006601X00112

Longman, T. (2013, April). Christian churches and genocide in Rwanda. Umuvugizi. Retrieved from https://umuvugizi.wordpress.com/2013/04/23/christian-churches-87/

Mays, N., & Pope, C. (1995). Qualitative research: Rigour and qualitative research. BMJ, 311, 109-112. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2550154/pdf/bmj00600-0043.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.311.6997.109

Mbatia, P., Bikuru, K., & Nderitu, P. (2009). The challenges of ethnicity, multiparty democracy and state building in multiethnic states in Africa. The Future of Africa. Retrieved from https://thefutureofafrica.wordpress.com/2009/10/17/the-challenges-of-ethnicity-multiparty-democracy-and-state-building-in-multiethnic-states-in-africa/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvk3gp8v.16

McQuail, D., Blumler, J. G., & Brown, J. R. (1972). The television audience: A revised perspective. In D. McQuail (Ed.), Sociology of mass communication (pp. 271-284). Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Media Council of Kenya. (2005). Baseline survey of media in Kenya. Nairobi: Almond Print Ltd.

Merriam, S. B. (2002). Introduction to qualitative research. In S. B. Merriam (Ed.), Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis (pp. 3-17). San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass.

Mhlanga, B. (2013). Ethnicity or tribalism? The discursive construction of Zimbabwean national identity. African Identities, 11(1), 47-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14725843.2013.775840 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14725843.2013.775840

Mitchell, J. (2007). Remembering the Rwandan genocide: Reconsidering the role of local and global media. Global Media Journal. Retrieved from http://www.globalmediajournal.com/open-access/remembering-the-rwandan-genocidereconsidering-the-role-of-local-and-global-media.php?aid=35262

Morse, J. M. (2015). Critical analysis of strategies for determining rigor in qualitative inquiry. In C. A. Puebla, M. G. Pech, & Y. O. Pecha (Eds.), Salud intercultural: Creando puentes a partir de la investigacion cualitativa (pp. 17-38). Merida, Yucatan.

Namkoong, K., Shah, D. V., & Gustafson, D. H. (2017). Offline social relationships and online cancer communication: Effects of social and family support on online social network building. Health Communication, 32(11), 1422-1429. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2016.1230808 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2016.1230808

Njoroge, M. C., Kimani, P., & Kikech, B. J. (2011). New media in Kenya: Putting ethnicity in perspective. Cultural Identity and New Communication Technologies: Political, Ethnic, and Ideological Implications. Retrieved from http://irlibrary.ku.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/123456789/9948/New%20media%20in%20Kenya,%20putting %20ethnicity%20in%20perspective.pdf?sequence=1.

Nwaigbo, F. (2005). Tribalism versus evangelization in sub-saharan Africa. African Ecclesial Review, 47(3), 131-159.

Nwozor, A. (2014). Media, ethnicity and the challenge of peace: Exploring the crisis of state-building in Nigeria. The Journal of Pan African Studies, 6(9), 146-161.

Obonyo, L. (2003). Kenya. World Press Encyclopedia: A Survey of Press Systems Worldwide (pp. 529-539). New York, NY: Gale Group..

Onyalla, D. B. (2005). Tribalism in religious communities in Africa. African Ecclesial Review, 47(3), 160-183.

Osaghae, E. E. (2006). Ethnicity and the state in Africa. Afrasian Centre for Peace and Development Studies, 7, 1-21.

Paluck, E. L. (2009). Reducing intergroup prejudice and conflict using the media: A field experiment in Rwanda. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(3), 574-587. doi:10.1037/a0011989 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0011989

Paluck, E. L., & Green, D. P. (2009). Deference, dissent, and dispute resolution: An experimental intervention using mass media to change norms and behavior in Rwanda. American Political Science Review, 103(4), 622-644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003055409990128 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055409990128

Parks, M. R. (2011). Social networks and the life of relationships. In M. L. Knapp, & J. A. Daly (Eds.), The safe handbook of interpersonal communication (pp. 355-388). (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Porter, S. (2011). Ethnicity in Africa: A road to conflict or a path to peace? Africa Faith and Justice Network. Retrieved from http://www.afjn.org/focus-campaigns/other/other-crisis-areas/80-democracy-and-governance/982-ethnicity-in-africa-a-road-to-conflict-or-a-path-to-peace-.html

Raile, A. N. W., Kim, R. K., Choi, J., Serota, K. B., Park, H. S., & Lee, D. W. (2008). Connections at work: How friendship networks relate to job satisfaction. Communication Research Reports, 25(2), 168-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08824090802022051 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090802022051

Ratcliff, A. J., McCarty, J., & Ritter, M. (2017). Religion and new media: A uses and gratifications approach. Journal of Media and Religion, 16(1), 15-26. https://doi.org/10.1080/15348423.2017.1274589 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15348423.2017.1274589

Reid, S. (2009). Social identity theory. In S. W. Littlejohn, & K. A. Foss (Eds.), Encyclopedia of communication theory (pp. 896-897). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Robinson, A. (2017). Ethnic diversity, segregation and ethnocentric trust in Africa. British Journal of Political Science, 1-23. doi:10.1017/S0007123417000540 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123417000540

Roloff, M. E., & Chiles, B. W. (2011). Interpersonal conflict: Recent trends. In M. L. Knapp, & J. A. Daly (Eds.), The sage handbook of interpersonal communication (pp. 423-442). (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Roman, N. V., Makwakwa, T., & Lacante, M. (2016). Perceptions of parenting styles in South Africa: The effects of gender and ethnicity. Cogent Psychology, 3, 1-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311908.2016.1153231 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23311908.2016.1153231

Rubin, A. M. (2009). Uses and gratifications: An evolving perspective of media effects. In R. L. Nabi, & B. B. Oliver (Eds.), Media processes and effects (pp. 147-163). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Rubin, B. R., Palmgreen, P., & Sypher, E. H. (1994). Communication research measures: A source book. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Ruggiero, T. E. (2000). Uses and gratifications theory in the 21st century. Mass Communication & Society, 3(1), 3-37. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327825MCS0301_02 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327825MCS0301_02

Rui, J. R., & Stefanone, M. A. (2016). The desire for fame: An extension of uses and gratifications theory. Communication Studies, 67(4), 399-418. https://doi.org/10.1080/10510974.2016.1156006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10510974.2016.1156006

Sanou, B. (2015). Ethnicity, tribalism and racism: A global challenge for the Christian church and its mission. The Journal of Applied Christian Leadership, 9(1), 94-104.

Saw, A., & Okazaki, S. (2008). Social identity theory. In F. T. Leong, E. M. Almaier, & B. D. Johnson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of counseling (pp. 1319-1321). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Schramm, W. (1949). The nature of news. Journalism Quarterly, 69, 259-269. https://doi.org/10.1177/107769904902600301 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/107769904902600301

Schrøder, K. C. (2015). News media old and new: Fluctuating audiences news repertoires and locations of consumption. Journalism Studies, 16(1), 60-78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2014.890332

Sendjaya, S., & Sarros, J. C. (2002). Servant leadership: Its origin, development, and application in organizations. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 9(2), 57-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107179190200900205 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/107179190200900205

Sendroiu, I., & Mogosanu, A. (2018). Does being Roma matter? Ethnic boundaries and stigma spillover in musical consumption. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2018.1525496 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2018.1525496

Shinar, D. (2003). The peace process in cultural conflict: The role of the media. Conflict &Communication Online 2(1), 1-10.

Somerville, K. (2008). Violence, hate speech and inflammatory broadcasting in Kenya: The problems of definition and identification. Ecquid Novi: African Journalism Studies, 32(1), 82-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02560054.2011.545568 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02560054.2011.545568

Straus, S. (2007). What is the relationship between hate radio and violence? Rethinking Rwanda's "Radio Machete". Politics & Society, 35, 609-637. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0032329207308181 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0032329207308181

Suliman, M., Shah, M., Ullah, A., & Jamal, H. (2016). Ethnicity based social exclusion of Nomads in Khyber district Malakand, Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 3(1), 11-19. Retrieved from http://www.ejecs.org/index.php/JECS/article/view/41/30 DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/41

Sundar, S. S., & Limperos, A. M. (2013). Uses and grats 2.0: New gratifications for new media. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 57(4), 504-525. https://doi.org/10.1080/08838151.2013.845827 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08838151.2013.845827

Swart, J., Peters, C., & Broersma, M. (2017). Navigating cross-media news use. Journalism Studies, 18(11), 1343- 1362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2015.1129285 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2015.1129285

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1979). An intergrative theory of intergroup conflict. The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations, 33-47.

Tuckett, A. (2004). Qualitative research sampling: The very real complexities. Nurse Researcher, 47-61. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7748/nr2004.07.12.1.47.c5930

Turner, J. C. (1982). Towards a cognitive redefinition of the social group. In H. Tajfel (Ed.), Social identity and intergroup relations (pp. 15-40). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wamwere, K. (2003). Negative ethnicity: From bias to genocide. New York, NY: Seven Stories Press.

Weighton, L., & McCurdy, P. (2017). The ghost in the news room: The legacy of Kenya's 2007 post-election violence and the constraints on journalists covering Kenya's 2013 General Election. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 11(4), 649-669. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17531055.2017.1378447 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17531055.2017.1378447

Witt, C. (2014). A critique of the bionormative concept of the family. In F. Baylis, & C. McLeod (Eds.), Family-making: Contemporary ethical challenges (pp. 49-63). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656066.003.0004

Wright, K. B., Rosenberg, J., Egbert, N., Ploeger, N. A., Bernard, D. R., & King, S. (2013). Communication competence, social support, and depression among college students: A model of facebook and face-to-face support network influence. Journal of Health Communication, 18(1), 41-57. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2012.688250 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2012.688250

Wu, B. & Ida, A. K. (2018). Ethnic diversity, religion, and opinions toward legalizing abortion: The case of Asian Americans. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 5(1), 94-109. Retrieved from http://www.ejecs.org/index.php/JECS/article/view/92/pdf

Ye, J. (2006). Traditional and online support networks in in the cross‐cultural adaptation of Chinese international students in the United States. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(3), 863-876. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.00039.x

Yieke, A. F. (2011). Ethnicity and development in Kenya: Lessons from the 2007 general elections. Kenya Studies Review, 3(3), 8-19.

Yigit, M. (2018). Does higher education change value perceptions?. Journal of Culture and Values in Education, 1(1), 1-8. Retrieved from http://cultureandvalues.org/index.php/JCV/article/view/5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.46303/jcve.01.01.1

Yigit, M. F. (2017). Value priorities of public and private university students. Research in Social Sciences and Technology, 2(1) DOI: https://doi.org/10.46303/ressat.02.01.1

Yigit, M.F. & Tarman, B. (2013). The Impact of Social Media on Globalization, Democratization Citizenship, Journal of Social Science Education, 12(1), 75-80.

Yin, R. K. (2011). Qualitative research from start to finish. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Downloads

Published

2018-12-09

How to Cite

Onyalla, D. B. (2018). Ethnic Influence of Colleagues and Friends on Choices of News Media Channels: The Case of Catholic Church Leaders in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 5(2), 140–158. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/110

Issue

Section

Original Manuscript
Received 2018-06-16
Accepted 2018-10-27
Published 2018-12-09