Unveiling the Veil: Intangible Cultural Heritage and the Filipino College Students

Abstract views: 975 / PDF downloads: 893





comparativism, culture, Intangible Cultural Heritage, living heritage


This study examined the current knowledge of Filipino college students on the Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) of the Philippines. The study included 75 college students during the academic year 2022-2023. Through a qualitative approach, the students submitted written essays anchored to the research questions. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the qualitative data, adhering to the stages of open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. The analysis resulted in the surfacing of various themes which are the result of this study: (1) Exposure to art forms, (2) association with indigenous people, (3) essence of values and practices, (4) misunderstandings about ICH, and (5) safeguarding of ICH. Students who came from the provinces experienced ICH through their festivities and local cultures, which are annual celebrations of various communities. There were also students who observed their locality’s people, handicrafts, and even familial behaviors. The presence of various art forms, performances, and experiences with indigenous peoples, and local traditions, regardless of whether it is within their families or communities, and their own knowledge of recent social issues unveiled the opportunities for the students to be exposed to the concept of Intangible Cultural Heritage and safeguard it. The author proposed a recommendation to further study and formulate a probable teaching and learning approach for college students to be more exposed to the Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Philippines.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Robert John Pastera, Far Eastern University

Robert John Panis Pastera is a Lecturer at the Department of Language and Literature, Institute of Arts and Sciences, Far Eastern University-Manila. He holds a Master of Arts in English as a Second Language from De La Salle University - Dasmariñas. He currently teaches an elective course on the Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Philippines under the Culture, Society, Ideas, and Innovations subject at FEU. He previously held a position as a Philippine Culture and Heritage for an international company, and his research interests include folk literature, mythology, Intangible Cultural Heritage, English as a second language, and education.


Aguila, A. A. A., & Coldovero, N. S. (2020). Signs and symbols in the Ati-Atihan Festival of Kalibo, Aklan, Philippines. JPAIR Multidisciplinary Research, 41(1), 116–141. https://doi.org/10.7719/jpair.v41i1.792 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7719/jpair.v41i1.792

Alejandria-Gonzalez, M. C. P. (2016). Cultural tourism development in the Philippines: An analysis of challenges and orientations. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 17(4), 496–515. https://doi.org/10.1080/1528008x.2015.1127194 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1528008X.2015.1127194

Aziz, N. A. A., Ariffin, N. F. M., Ismail, N. A., Ismail, S., & Alias, A. (2022). Assess community strength and needs to create an effective community-based education for living heritage conservation in Melaka World Heritage Site. International Journal of Academic Research in Business & Social Sciences, 12(8), 1054–1063. https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v12-i8/14675 DOI: https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v12-i8/14675

Ballena, C. T., & Liwag, E. (2019). Carpe diem or carpe thesis? How graduate students deal with their thesis writing. International Journal of Research, 6(11), 68–73. https://journals.pen2print.org/index.php/ijr/article/view/19499/19141

Benichou, A., Boulahnane, S., & Benichou, H. (2022). The role of heritage education and cultural mediation in students’ identity assertion. European Journal of Theology and Philosophy, 2(6), 48–56. https://doi.org/10.24018/theology.2022.2.6.89 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24018/theology.2022.2.6.89

Besmonte, E. L. (2022). Identification and safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) of Tabaco City, Philippines, through cultural mapping. Journal of Education, Management and Development Studies, 2(2), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.52631/jemds.v2i2.106 DOI: https://doi.org/10.52631/jemds.v2i2.106

Boer, D., & Abubakar, A. (2014). Music listening in families and peer groups: Benefits for young people’s social cohesion and emotional well-being across four cultures. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, Article 392. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00392 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00392

Catibog-Sinha, C. (2011). Sustainable forest management: Heritage tourism, biodiversity, and upland communities in the Philippines. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 6(4), 341–352. https://doi.org/10.1080/1743873x.2011.620113 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1743873X.2011.620113

Chen, F. (2022). Analysis of the characteristics of art Intangible Cultural Heritage in cross-cultural communication. Art and Design Review, 10(3), 389–396. https://doi.org/10.4236/adr.2022.103030 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/adr.2022.103030

Clariza, M. E. (2019). Sacred texts and symbols: An Indigenous Filipino perspective on reading. The International Journal of Information, Diversity, & Inclusion, 3(2), 80–92. https://doi.org/10.33137/ijidi.v3i2.32593 DOI: https://doi.org/10.33137/ijidi.v3i2.32593

Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. (2017). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design : Choosing Among Five Approaches. SAGE Publications.

Du, Y. (2021). Study on the utilization of Intangible Cultural Heritage in the development of rural tourism. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Economics, Management, Law and Education (EMLE 2020). https://doi.org/10.2991/aebmr.k.210210.073 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2991/aebmr.k.210210.073

Eder, J. (2013). The future of Indigenous Peoples in the Philippines: Sources of cohesion, forms of difference on JSTOR. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, 41(3/4), 273–294. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43854732

Eslit, E. R. (2023). Resilience of Philippine folklore: An enduring heritage and legacy for the 21st century. International Journal of Education, Language, and Religion, 5(1), 9–20. https://doi.org/10.35308/ijelr.v5i1.7504 DOI: https://doi.org/10.35308/ijelr.v5i1.7504

Eyssartier, C., Ladio, A. H., & Lozada, M. (2008). Cultural transmission of traditional knowledge in two populations of North-Western Patagonia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 4(1), Article 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-4-25 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-4-25

Filipovic, N. (2018). Intangible cultural heritage as a motive for choosing the tourist destination Aranđelovac. Mенаџмент У Хотелијерству И Туризму, 6(1), 53–62. https://doi.org/10.5937/menhottur1801053f DOI: https://doi.org/10.5937/menhottur1801053F

Gabriel, A. G., De Vera, M., & Antonio, M. a. B. (2020). Roles of indigenous women in forest conservation: A comparative analysis of two indigenous communities in the Philippines. Cogent Social Sciences, 6(1), Article 1720564. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2020.1720564 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2020.1720564

Garcia, R., Tan, R., Florendo, J., & Santos, N. (2020). Student-centered learning in general education in a private University in Manila: An analysis. Cosmos: An International Journal of Art & Higher Education, 9(2), 7–12.

Gosnell-Myers, G. (2022). Co-creating the Cities We Deserve through Indigenous knowledge. In Routledge eBooks (pp. 80–90). https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003199816-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003199816-8

Hosokawa, R., Katsura, T., & Taira, K. (2022). Experience of annual events in the family and social adjustment of school-age children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 16(1), Article 39. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-022-00475-w DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-022-00475-w

Huang, W., Xiang, H., Liang, W., Li, X. D., Lai, G., & Yin, L. (2018). The design of visual communication for intangible cultural heritage in product form. Proceedings of the 2018 2nd International Conference on Education Innovation and Social Science (ICEISS 2018). https://doi.org/10.2991/iceiss-18.2018.72 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2991/iceiss-18.2018.72

Isa, W. M. W., Zin, N. A. M., Rosdi, F., & Sarim, H. M. (2018). Digital preservation of intangible cultural heritage. Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 12(3), 1373–1379. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijeecs.v12.i3.pp1373-1379Jing, W. (2022). Inheritance and application of intangible cultural heritage in higher art education. Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Art and Design: Inheritance and Innovation (ADII 2021): Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (pp. 354–357). https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.220205.057 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.220205.057

Landry, V., Asselin, H., & Lévesque, C. (2019). Link to the land and Mino-Pimatisiwin (Comprehensive Health) of Indigenous people living in urban areas in eastern Canada. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(23), Article 4782. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234782 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234782

Lassiter, L. E. (2014). Invitation to anthropology (4th ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. http://ci.nii.ac.jp/ncid/BA81500852

Lawangen, A. O., & Roberts, J. M. (2023). Interactions between disaster risk reduction and intangible culture among indigenous communities in Benguet, Philippines. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 94, Article 103801. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2023.103801 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2023.103801

Legusov, O., Raby, R. L., Mou, L., Gómez-Gajardo, F., & Yinqing, Z. (2021). How community colleges and other TVET institutions contribute to the united nations sustainable development goals. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 46(1), 89–106. https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877x.2021.1887463 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2021.1887463

Lerma, E., Zamarripa, M. X., Oliver, M., & Vela, J. (2015). Making our way through: Voices of Hispanic counselor educators. Counselor Education and Supervision, 54(3), 162–175. https://doi.org/10.1002/ceas.12011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ceas.12011

Liang, Y., Li, M., Tian, C., & Li, H. (2023). Study reporting an elective chemistry course titled “the mysteries of chemistry in intangible cultural heritage” to fulfill the vision of science literacy. Journal of Chemical Education, 100(7), 2654–2663. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.2c01248 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.2c01248

Lincoln, Y. S., Guba, E. G., & Pilotta, J. J. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 9(4), 438–439. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(85)90062-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(85)90062-8

Lobo, J. (2023). Protecting Philippine dance traditions via education of tomorrow’s pedagogues: The role of individual interest and school engagement. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 10(1), 98–124. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/1527 DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/1527

Ma, T. (2020). Research on Intangible Cultural Heritage Education and inheritance in universities. Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 4(11), 37–39. https://doi.org/10.26689/jcer.v4i11.1639 DOI: https://doi.org/10.26689/jcer.v4i11.1639

Mekonnen, H., Bires, Z., & Berhanu, K. (2022). Practices and challenges of cultural heritage conservation in historical and religious heritage sites: Evidence from North Shoa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Heritage Science, 10(1), Article 172. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-022-00802-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-022-00802-6

Menkshi, E., Braholli, E., Çobani, S., & Shehu, D. (2021). Assessing youth engagement in the preservation and promotion of culture heritage: A case study in Korça City, Albania. Quaestiones Geographicae, 40(1), 109–125. https://doi.org/10.2478/quageo-2021-0009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/quageo-2021-0009

Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2015). Qualitative research: A Guide to Design and Implementation. John Wiley & Sons.

Pacio, S. (2023). An ethnographic study of Yakan oral tradition in Southern Philippines: Perspectives from the community. East Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 2(4), 1709–1716. https://doi.org/10.55927/eajmr.v2i4.3800 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55927/eajmr.v2i4.3800

Peacock, J. (2001). The anthropological lens: Harsh light, soft focus (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/2802620 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139164924

Salvaña, F. R. P., & Arnibal, S. L. T. (2020). Importance of indigenous communities’ knowledge and perception in achieving biodiversity conservation: A case study from Manobo tribe of Southern Mindanao, Philippines. Asian Journal of Ethnobiology, 2(2), 84–91. https://doi.org/10.13057/asianjethnobiol/y020203 DOI: https://doi.org/10.13057/asianjethnobiol/y020203

Saxer, M. (2012). The moral economy of cultural identity. Civilisations, 61(1), 65–82. https://doi.org/10.4000/civilisations.3143 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4000/civilisations.3143

Soriano, R. N. (2021). Melting pot or salad bowl: Metro Manila’s cultural heterogeneity. International Journal of Multidisciplinary, 2(9), 745–751. https://doi.org/10.11594/ijmaber.02.09.05 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11594/ijmaber.02.09.05

Starčević, K., Vojinović, Ž., & Glavaš, J. (2022). Intangible cultural heritage and their influence on financial results in rural tourism. Economics of Agriculture, 69(2), 483–496. https://doi.org/10.5937/ekopolj2202483s DOI: https://doi.org/10.5937/ekoPolj2202483S

Stavrou, E. P. (2015). Determining the cultural identity of a child through folk literature. American Journal of Educational Research, 3(4), 527–534. https://doi.org/10.12691/education-3-4-20 DOI: https://doi.org/10.12691/education-3-4-20

Sun, J. (2022). Intangible cultural heritage management and protection based on spatial information technology under the background of internet of things. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, 2022, Article 4941617. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/4941617 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/4941617

Tylor, E. B. (1889). On a method of investigating the development of institutions: Applied to laws of marriage and descent. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 18, 245–272. https://doi.org/10.2307/2842423 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2842423

UNDP. (2013). Fast Facts: Indigenous peoples in the Philippines. https://www.undp.org/philippines/publications/fast-facts-indigenous-peoples-philippines

UNESCO. (2003). Convention for the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage. https://doi.org/10.29171/azu_acku_pamphlet_ds353_c698_2003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.29171/azu_acku_pamphlet_ds353_c698_2003

UNESCO. (2017). UNESCO moving forward the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. https://en.unesco.org/creativity/sites/creativity/files/247785en.pdf

Xiao, L. (2022). Intangible cultural heritage reproduction and revitalization: Value feedback, practice, and exploration based on the IPA model. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, 2022, Article 8411999. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/8411999 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/8411999

Xu, Z., & Zou, D. (2022). Big data analysis research on the deep integration of intangible cultural heritage inheritance and art design education in colleges and universities. Mobile Information Systems, 2022, Article 1172405. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/1172405 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/1172405




How to Cite

Pastera, R. . J. (2024). Unveiling the Veil: Intangible Cultural Heritage and the Filipino College Students. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 11(2), 25–41. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/1818



Original Manuscript
Received 2023-08-28
Accepted 2024-01-09
Published 2024-04-06