Socioeconomic Determinants of Caste-based Endogamy: A Qualitative Study

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  • Muhammad Rizwan Safdar University of the Punjab
  • Muhammad Akram Eastern Mennonite University
  • Falak Sher GC University Faisalabad
  • Abid Rahman University of Pewhawar, Pakistan



caste, economic dynamics, Endogamy, social factors, marriage system, patriarchy, social factors.


The present study is aimed at exploring the socioeconomic determinants and implications of caste-based endogamous marriages in Punjab, the most populous province in Pakistan. The data for this study were collected from a sample of 24 participants (14 males and 10 females), who were married-within-caste, with diverse socioeconomic, educational, and geographic backgrounds. This study found social pressure, protection of family honor, geographic propinquity, and caste-based stereotyping as key social factors reinforcing endogamous marriages in the province. Finally, the desire to avoid distribution of family’s economic resources like property and land was found to be a leading economic determinant of caste-based endogamy. Further, endogamy hinders economic mobility of lower castes since economic capitals such as land and property are preserved through this marital practice.


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Author Biographies

Muhammad Rizwan Safdar, University of the Punjab

Muhammad Rizwan Safdar is an Assistant Professor of Sociology at the Institute of Social and Cultural Studies, University of the Punjab, Pakistan. His research interests are culture, politics, and media Sociology.

Muhammad Akram, Eastern Mennonite University

Muhammad Akram is a graduate of Conflict Transformation from the Center for Justice and Peacebuilding at Eastern Mennonite University, Virginia, USA. He writes on community justice and preventing violent extremism.

Falak Sher, GC University Faisalabad

Falak Sher earned Ph.D. Sociology and is Director of the Institute of Arts and Sciences at Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. He specializes in community psychology.


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How to Cite

Safdar, M. R., Akram, M., Sher, F., & Rahman, A. (2021). Socioeconomic Determinants of Caste-based Endogamy: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 8(2), 39–54.



Original Manuscript
Received 2021-01-02
Accepted 2021-01-21
Published 2021-02-10

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