School and Student Factors and Their Influence on Affective Mathematics Engagement

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affective mathematics engagement, economic disadvantage, gender, immigration, language


This study examined the student-level (i.e., gender, home language, and immigration status) and school-level (i.e., school economic disadvantage status) variability of the students’ affective mathematics engagement. It was hypothesized that there is a school effect that contributes toward explaining differences in affective mathematics engagement besides the student-level differences. For the sake of the nested structure of the data in Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), we used the Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) methodology. There were 10,221 students from 246 schools in the study. The results of this study explained 5.3% of variance in students’ affective mathematics engagement by school-mean economic disadvantage status, where students’ demographic factors explained 1.2%. The present study contributed to a better understanding of the opportunity to learn variables at the student- and school-level in students’ affective mathematics engagement.


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Author Biographies

Yujin Lee, University of North Dakota

Yujin Lee is an assistant professor in the Department of Mathematics Education at Kangwon National University. Her research interests have centered on affective mathematics engagement, STEM education, teacher identity, large-scale national/international data analysis. Dr. Lee received her Ph.D. in Curriculum and Instruction with a specialization in mathematics education from Texas A&M University in 2019.

Robert M. Capraro

Robert M. Capraro is a co-director of the Aggie STEM center and professor of Mathematics Education in the Department of Teaching, Learning, and Culture at Texas A&M University. His research interests include representational models and learning transfer, curriculum design and evaluation in mathematics and science, STEM Project-Based Learning (PBL), and school change.

Mary M. Capraro

Mary M. Capraro is a co-director of the Aggie STEM center and professor of Mathematics Education in the Department of Teaching, Learning, and Culture at Texas A&M University. Her research interests include teacher knowledge and preparation in mathematics education and student understanding of mathematical concepts and how students pose problems.

Ali Bicer

Ali Bicer is an assistant professor in the School of Teacher Education at the University of Wyoming, where he teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in mathematics education. His research interests have centered on mathematical creativity, creativity-directed problem solving and -posing tasks, STEM education, and writing in mathematics. Dr. Bicer received his Ph.D. in Curriculum and Instruction with a mathematics specialization from Texas A&M University in 2016.


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How to Cite

Lee, Y., Capraro, R. M., Capraro, M. M., & Bicer, A. (2023). School and Student Factors and Their Influence on Affective Mathematics Engagement. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 10(1), 45–61.



Original Manuscript
Received 2022-05-23
Accepted 2023-01-08
Published 2023-01-26