Servant Leadership Characteristics of School Teachers and Its Effect on Student Success and Organizational Health in Selected Public Schools


Abstract views: 52 / PDF downloads: 24

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/1303

Keywords:

servant leadership, teachers, student success, organizational health, Organizational Leadership Assessment

Abstract

This study utilized a survey to explore the relationships between servant leadership characteristics of school teachers, student success, and organizational health in selected public schools. This study hypothesized that the servant leadership of school teachers would positively affect student success and the organizational health of public schools. The Organizational Leadership Assessment was used (Laub, 1999) to collect data from fifteen public schools in Houston, Texas. Data were screened for normality, linearity, and homoscedasticity to ensure that the regression results were robust, and univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the nature of the relationship between organizational health and servant leadership. Descriptive analysis explained variance in dependent and independent variables. The values people subscale was statistically significant.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Harun Gultekin, Alvernia University

Harun Gultekin received his doctoral degree in educational leadership from Alvernia University. Currently, he is teaching at Lehigh Carbon Community College in Schnecksville, Pennsylvania. His research expertise are leadership studies, servant leadership, and students’ academic achievement. He published several books and numerous peer-reviewed articles.

Taha Kara, Alvernia University

Taha Kara recently received his doctoral degree in educational leadership from Alvernia University. His research expertise is in education, technology, leadership studies, educational leadership, and teacher leadership.

References

Al-Mahdy, Y. F., Al-Harthi, A. S., & Salah El-Din, N. S. (2016). Perceptions of school principals’ servant leadership and their teachers’ job satisfaction in Oman. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 15(4), 543-566. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700763.2015.1047032 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15700763.2015.1047032

Allen, G. P., Moore, W. M., Moser, L. R., Neill, K. K., Sambamoorthi, U., & Bell, H. S. (2016). The role of servant leadership and transformational leadership in academic pharmacy. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(7), 113-124. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe807113 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe807113

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Prentice Hall.

Bandura, A. (2014). Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. In Handbook of moral behavior and development (pp. 69-128). Psychology Press. (Original work published 1991)

Barbuto, J. E., Jr., & Wheeler, D. W. (2021). Scale development and construct clarification of servant leadership. Group & Organization Management, 31(3), 300–326. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601106287091 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601106287091

Bass, B. M., (1990). From transactional leadership to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 19-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(90)90061-S

Bernard, L. L. (1926). An introduction to social psychology. Henry Holt. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/11032-000

Breevaart, K., Bakker, A., Hetland, J., Demerouti, E., Olsen, O. K., & Espevik, R., (2019). Daily transactional and transformational leadership and daily employee engagement. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87(1), 138-157. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12041 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12041

Brinkmann, S. (2014). Doing Without Data. Qualitative Inquiry, 20(6), 720–725. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800414530254 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800414530254

Brown, S., & Bryant, P., (2015). Getting to know the elephant: A call to advance servant leadership through construct consensus, empirical evidence, and multilevel theoretical development. Servant Leadership: Theory and Practice, 2(1), 10-35. https://csuepress.columbusstate.edu/sltp/vol2/iss1/2

Bryman, A. (2007). Barriers to integrating quantitative and qualitative research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1), 8-22. https://doi.org/10.1177/2345678906290531 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2345678906290531

Burch, M. J., Swails, P., & Mills, R., (2015). Perceptions of administrators' servant leadership qualities at a Christian university: A descriptive study. Education, 135(4), 399-404.

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. Harper and Row.

Chiniara, M., & Bentein, K., (2016). Linking servant leadership to individual performance: Differentiating the mediating role of autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(1), 124-141. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2015.08.004

Clarke, S. (2018). Safety leadership: A meta-analytic review of transformational and transactional leadership styles as antecedents of safety behaviors. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(1), 22-49. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.2012.02064.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.2012.02064.x

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D., (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. SAGE Publications.

Day, D. V. (2017). Leadership development: A review in context. The Leadership Quarterly, 11(4), 581-613. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(00)00061-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(00)00061-8

Ehigie, B. O., & Akpan, R. C., (2019). Roles of perceived leadership styles and rewards in the practice of total quality management. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 25(1), 24-40. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730410512750 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730410512750

Ekinci, A. (2018). Development of the school principals' servant leadership behaviors scale and evaluation of servant leadership behaviors according to teachers' views. Egitim ve Bilim, 40(179), 341-360. https://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2015.2152 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2015.2152

Focht, A., & Ponton, M., (2015). Identifying primary characteristics of servant leadership: Delphi study. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 9(1), 44-61.

Gage, N. L., & Berliner, D. C., (1998). Educational psychology. Houghton Mifflin.

Greenleaf, R. K., (1977). Servant leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. Paulist Press.

Grisaffe, D. B., VanMeter, R., & Chonko, L. B., (2016). Serving first for the benefit of others: Preliminary evidence for a hierarchical conceptualization of servant leadership. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 36(1), 40-58. https://doi.org/10.1080/08853134.2016.1151303 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08853134.2016.1151303

Heyler, G. S., & Martin, J. A., (2018). Servant leadership theory: Opportunities for additional theoretical integration. Journal of Managerial Issues, 30(2), 230-243. https://www.jstor.org/stable/45176580

Horner, M. (2019). Leadership theory reviewed. In N. Bennet, M. Crawford, & M. Cartwright (Eds.), Effective educational leadership. Paul Chapman.

Horsman, J. H., (2017). Perspectives of servant-leadership and spirit in organizations [Doctoral Dissertation, Gonzaga University]. https://worldcat.org/en/title/50120171

Houdyshell, M., & Kirk, P. (2018). Graduate students’ perceptions on a professional pathway for academic advisors. American Journal of Qualitative Research, 2(1), 77-96. https://doi.org/10.29333/ajqr/5795 DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ajqr/5795

Jaramillo, F., Bande, B., & Varela, J., (2015). Servant leadership and ethics: A dyadic examination of supervisor behaviors and salesperson perceptions. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 35(2), 108-124. https://doi.org/10.1080/08853134.2015.1010539 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08853134.2015.1010539

Joseph, E. E., & Winston, B. E., (2018). Correlation of servant leadership, leader trust, and organizational trust. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 26(1), 6-22. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730510575552 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730510575552

Khan, S. (2014). Qualitative research method: Grounded theory. International Journal of Business and Management, 9(11), 224-233. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v9n11p224 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v9n11p224

Koyuncu, M., J., Burke, R., Astakhova, M., Eren, D., & Cetin, H., (2021). Servant leadership and perceptions of service quality provided by front-line service workers in hotels in Turkey: Achieving competitive advantage. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(7), 1083-1099. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-06-2013-0238 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-06-2013-0238

Laub, J. A. (1999). Assessing the servant organization: Development of the servant organizational leadership assessment (SOLA) instrument [Doctoral dissertation,Florida Atlantic University]. https://www.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/assessing-servant-organization-development/docview/304517144/se-2

Ledbetter, S. D. (2019). Law enforcement leaders and servant leadership: A reliability study of the organizational leadership assessment [Doctoral dissertation, Regent University]. https://www.servantleaderperformance.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/2003-Steve-Ledbetter-Dissertation.pdf

Leithwood, K. A., & Poplin, M. S., (1992). The move toward transformational leadership. Educational Leadership, 49(5), 8-12.

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Liao, C., & Meuser, J. D., (2014). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal, 57(5), 1434-1452. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2013.0034 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2013.0034

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Meuser, J. D., Hu, J., Wu, J., & Liao, C., (2015). Servant leadership: Validation of a short form of the SL-28. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(2), 254-269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.12.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.12.002

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Zhao, H., & Henderson, D., (2008). Servant leadership: Development of a multidimensional measure and multi-level assessment. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(2), 161-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.01.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.01.006

McCleskey, J. A. (2014). Situational, transformational, and transactional leadership and leadership development. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 5(4), 117-130. https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/situational-transformational-transactional/docview/1548766781/se-2

Miears, L. D., (2004). Servant-leadership and job satisfaction: A correlational study in Texas Education Agency Region X schools [Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M-Commerce]. https://www.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/servant-leadership-job-satisfaction-correlational/docview/305050058/se-2

Moll J., Kreikebaum, M., Cole, P., Kiiza, M., & Holtkamp, S. (2016). Social responsibility of higher education institutions: Service learning cooperation between Germany and Uganda. In J. Barentsen, V. Kessler, & E. Meier (Eds.) Christian leadership in a changing world: Perspectives from Africa and Europe (pp. 201-215). Peeters.

Moll, J., & Kretzschmar, L. (2017). An investigation of the suitability of a servant leadership model for academic group leaders at German universities. Journal of Leadership Education, 16(2), 166-182. https://doi.org/1012806/V16/I2/T1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.12806/V16/I2/T1

Moreno, A. R., Morales, V. G., & Montes, F. J. L. (2021). Learning during the quality management process: Antecedents and effects in service firms. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 105(8), 1001-1021. https://doi.org/10.1108/02635570510624419 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02635570510624419

Northouse, P. G. (2018). Leadership: Theory and practice. SAGE Publications.

OLA Group (Organizational Leadership Assessment Group). (2017). Retrieved September 9, 2017, from http://www.olagroup.com

Olesia, W. S., Namusonge, G. S., & Iravo, M. E. (2018). Role of servant leadership on organizational commitment: An exploratory survey of state corporations in Kenya. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(13), 85-94.

Panaccio, A., Henderson, D. J., Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Cao, X. (2020). Toward an understanding of when and why servant leadership accounts for employee extra-role behaviors. Journal of Business and Psychology, 30(4), 657-675. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-014-9388-z DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-014-9388-z

Politis, J. D. (2018). The connection between trust and knowledge management: What are its implications for team performance? Journal of Knowledge Management, 7(5), 55-66. https://doi.org/10.1108/13673270310505386 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/13673270310505386

Prichard, S. (2017). A mixed-methods investigation of preservice music teaching efficacy beliefs and commitment to music teaching. Journal of Research in Music Education, 65(2), 237-257. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022429417710387 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022429417710387

Rea, D. C., Carter, C. F., Parfitt, C. M., Wilkerson, J. R., & Valesky, T. C. (2017). Using dispositional surveys to improve individual and program quality in educational leadership. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 4(2), 81-87. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/77 DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/77

Russell, R. F., & Stone, A. G. (2021). A review of servant leadership attributes: Developing a practical model. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 23(3), 145-157. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730210424 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730210424

Saleem, F., Yingying Z. Z., Gopinath, C., & Adeel, A. (2020). Impact of servant leadership on performance: The mediating role of affective and cognitive trust. SAGE Open, 10(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019900562 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019900562

Schmidt, B. (2019). Mit gutem Beispiel voran?: Eine empirische Studie zum veränderungsund innovationsbezogenen Handeln von Professorinnen und Professoren [Leading by example? An empirical study change and innovation-related actions of professors]. Die Hochschule, 1, 46–63. https://doi.org/10.25656/01:16351

Sendjaya, S., Sarros, J. C., & Santora, J. C. (2018). Defining and measuring servant leadership behavior in organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 45(2), 402-424. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2007.00761.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2007.00761.x

Sipe, J. W., & Frick, D. M. (2015). Seven pillars of servant leadership: Practicing the wisdom of leading by serving. Paulist Press.

Sousa, M., & Van Dierendonck, D., (2016). Introducing a short measure of shared servant leadership impacting team performance through team behavioral integration. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, Article 2002. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.02002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.02002

Spahr, P. (2015, January 6). Defining leadership: Do you manage…or do you lead? [Web log post].

Spahr, P. (2016). What is charismatic leadership? Leading through personal conviction. Retrieved from http://online.stu.edu/charismatic-leadership/

Spears, L. C., (2010). The character and servant leadership: Ten characteristics of effective, caring leaders. Journal of Virtues & Leadership, 1(1), 25-30.

Spears, L. C., (2017). The character and servant leadership: Ten characteristics of effective, caring leaders. Journal of Virtues & Leadership, 1(1), 25-30.

Spears, L. C., & Lawrence, M. (Eds.). (2016). Practicing servant-leadership: Succeeding through trust, bravery, and forgiveness. John Wiley & Sons.

Stanley, D. (2004). Leadership styles and conflict management styles: An exploratory study. Regent University Press.

Thompson, R. S. (2015). The perception of servant leadership characteristics and job satisfaction in a church-related college [Doctoral dissertation, Indiana State University]. https://www.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/perception-servant-leadership-characteristics-job/docview/305513434/se-2

Van Dierendonck, D. (2011). Servant leadership: A review and synthesis. Journal of Management, 37(4), 1228-1261. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206310380462 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206310380462

Wahyuni, D. U., Christiananta, B., & Eliyana, A. (2018). Influence of organizational commitment, transactional leadership, and servant leadership to the work motivation, work satisfaction and work performance of teachers at private senior high schools in Surabaya. Educational Research International, 3(2), 82-96.

Warner, R.M. (2017). Applied statistics: From bivariate to multivariate techniques. SAGE Publishing.

Winston, B., & Fields, D. (2018). Seeking and measuring the essential behaviors of servant leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 36(4), 413-434. https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-10-2013-0135 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-10-2013-0135

Wong, C. A., & Cummings, G. G. (2019). The influence of authentic leadership behaviors on trust and work outcomes of healthcare staff. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(2), 6-23. https://doi.org/10.1002/jls.20104 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jls.20104

Yang, Z., Zhang, H., Kwan, H. K., & Chen, S. (2018). Crossover effects of servant leadership and job social support on employee spouses: The mediating role of employee organization-based self-esteem. Journal of Business Ethics, 147(3), 595-604. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2943-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2943-3

Yong, B. (2021). The relationship between emotional intelligence, motivation, integrity, spirituality, mentoring and servant leadership practices. Arts and Social Sciences Journal, 67.

Zagorsek, H., Dimovski, V., & Skerlavai, M. (2019). Transactional and transformational leadership impacts on organizational learning. Journal for East European Management Studies 14(2), 144-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5771/0949-6181-2009-2-144

Downloads

Published

2022-11-16

How to Cite

Gultekin, H., & Kara, T. (2022). Servant Leadership Characteristics of School Teachers and Its Effect on Student Success and Organizational Health in Selected Public Schools. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 9(4), 120–138. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/1303

Issue

Section

Original Manuscript