A Comparative Analysis of the Factors Predicting Fears of Terrorism and Cyberterrorism in a Developing Nation Context

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Cyberterrorism, exposure to online news, time spent online, political views, risk of immigrant's cyber-attacks, religious service attendance


Considering the continuous use of cyberspace for cyber-attacks and terrorism, the current study examined the phenomena of the fear of terrorism and cyberterrorism. It also investigates the factors influencing the fear of terrorism and of cyberterrorism and the predictive differences between the two. A multistage random sampling technique was utilized to collect data from 510 Indonesian participants at local administrative units and social networking site users. Structural equation model analysis was performed using SmartPLS 3.3.3 software. The results revealed that of the six predictors, exposure to online news, time spent online, political views, risk of immigrants' cyber-attacks, and religiosity significantly influenced creating fear of cyberterrorism. In contrast, religious service attendance was not significantly related to the creation of cyberterrorism fear among individual individuals. At the same time, all the factors, excluding time spent online, were significant predictors of creating fear of terrorism among the citizens of Indonesia. These findings can be utilized by practitioners, academicians, and government bodies to reduce the fear of terrorism and cyberterrorism among bill citizens of a developing nation by devising strategies and regulations and providing them with cyber security.


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Author Biography

Petrus Reinhard Golase, STIK

Petrus Reinhard Golose is currently Head of National Narcotics Board of Republic Indonesia (BNN). He also a lecturer in Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kepolisian (STIK-PTIK), Jakarta. He is well known active both in police operation and researcher on counter transnational crimes such as counter terrorism, narcotics and cybercrime. In 2008, he earned doctoral degree at Universitas Indonesia, Depok. In 2019, he receive Doctor Honoris Causa from Universitas Udayana, Bali.


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How to Cite

Reinhard Golase, P. (2022). A Comparative Analysis of the Factors Predicting Fears of Terrorism and Cyberterrorism in a Developing Nation Context. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 9(4), 106–119. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/1372



Original Manuscript
Received 2022-08-31
Accepted 2022-10-20
Published 2022-11-04