The Imperial Regimes as a Root of Current Ethnic Based Conflicts in Ethiopia


Abstract views: 656 / PDF downloads: 235

Authors

  • Tefera Assefa Moreda Ambo University, Woliso Campus

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/919

Keywords:

ethnic conflict, Ethiopia, imperial regimes, ethnic, dialectical method, vicious circle of conflict.

Abstract

Current ethnic conflict in Ethiopia is not a simple byproduct of Multinational federalism and politicization of ethnicity since 1991. Regardless of the contradictions and debates over the core causes of ethnic conflict in Ethiopia, it is impossible to fully comprehend it without a thorough and honest examination of the pre-1991 country's history in terms of ethnicity and ethnic conflict. The article analyzed the historical root causes of ethnic conflict in Ethiopia by taking Minilik’s II and HaileSelassie’s I regimes into account. Hence, a Dialectical approach and historical method were employed to conduct a critical investigation of the core causes of ethnic conflict. The article found that the country's current ethnic politics and ethnic warfare sowed during the imperial regime. Minilik II and his successor conquered, confiscated, subjugated, enslaved, and dehumanized the southern nations, nationalities, and people in the consecration of Ethiopia's current territory. During imperial administrations, Ethiopia was seen as a prison-house of people. Ethnic identity has been taboo during the imperial regimes of Ethiopia. The article found that the imperial regimes of Ethiopia were the precursor to both immediate and potential ethnic-based detestation, animosity, and violence that resulted in the country's lengthy and deadly civil wars. Based on a dialectical method, this article discovered that the process of Ethiopian state creation resulted in sustainable and predictable cyclical rotation of contradiction and contestation between thesis and antithesis, without creating strong syntheses. Moreover, the misappropriation of concepts of nationalism and nation-building has been common in the country's political history

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Tefera Assefa Moreda, Ambo University, Woliso Campus

Lecturer in Public Administration and Development Management (public policy study) at Ambo University, Woliso campus

References

Abbink, J. (2006). Ethnicity and conflict generation in Ethiopia: Some problems and prospects of ethno-regional federalism. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 24(3). https://doi.org/10.1080/02589000600976729 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02589000600976729

Abdirahman, A. M. & Mohamed, A. S. (2017). Somali Region in Ethiopia: Historical Developments during the Period 1884-1995. Somali Studies, Volume 2, pp. 60-75

Abiy, A. (2017). Erkab Ena Menber. Central printing press.

Abiy, A. (2019). Medemer. Tsehay Publisher.

Adamu, A. Y. (2013). Diversity in Ethiopia: A historical overview of political challenges. International Journal of Community Diversity, 12(3). 17-27. https://doi.org/10.18848/2327-0004/CGP/v12i03/39924 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18848/2327-0004/CGP/v12i03/39924

Adamu, M. M. (2009). The legend of Queen Sheba, the Solomonic Dynasty and Ethiopian history: An analysis. African Research Review, 3(1), 468-482. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v3i1.43592

Adegehe, A. K. (2009). Federalism and ethnic conflict in Ethiopia: A comparative study of the Somali and Benishangul-Gumuz regions [Doctoral dissertation, Department of Political Science, Leiden University]. https://hdl.handle.net/1887/13839

Adejumobi, S. A. (2007). The history of Ethiopia. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Agegnehu, A., & Dibu, W. (2017). Does decentralization have a role in poverty reduction? The Ethiopian experience. Journal of African Studies and Development, 9(1), 1-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5897/JASD2016.0421

Ahmed, H. (2010). Benevolent Masters and voiceless subjects: slavery and slave trade in southern Wällo (Ethiopia) in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Annales d'Ethiopie, 25(1), 197-208. https://doi.org/10.3406/ethio.2010.1413 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/ethio.2010.1413

Alemayehu G. (2004). Does conflict explain Ethiopia’s backwardness? Yes! and significantly: Paper presented at Making Peace Work Conference at WIDER, Helsinki, Finland.

Aljazeera. (2020, October 8). The battle for Ethiopia people and power [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQ2NVXuzjww

Aljazeera. (2021, April 2). Is independence from Ethiopia the TPLF’s endgame in Tigray? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIOMQYI6Hnw&t=247s

Amhara Media Corporation. (2019, October 30). ልዩ ዝግጅት፡ የአብን አመራሮች ከአማራ ብዙኃን መገናኛ ድርጅት-አማራ ቴሌቪዥን የነበራቸው ቆዩታ ክፍል አንድ (Special Program: Leaders of National Movement of Amhara with Amhara Media, Interview with Amhara Televesion: Part one). [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hf-3KwM1-PA

Aweke, A. K. (2021). Civil resistance in Ethiopia: An overview of historical development. African Journal of History and Culture, 13(1), 7-18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2020.0471

Bach, J. N. (2014). EPRDF’s nation-building: Tinkering with convictions and pragmatism. Cadernos de Estudos Africanos, 27. https://doi.org/10.4000/cea.1501 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4000/cea.1501

Basedau, M. (2011). Managing ethnic conflict: The menu of institutional engineering. GIGA Working Paper No 171. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1883456 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1883456

Bekele, S. (2015). Monarchical restoration and territorial expansion: The Ethiopian State in the second half of the 19th century. In G. Prunier & E. Ficquet (Eds.), Understanding contemporary Ethiopia: Monarchy, revolution and legacy of Meles Zenawi (pp. 159-182). C. Hurst & Co. Ltd.

Belay, F. Y. (2016). Conceptualizations and impacts of multiculturalism in the Ethiopian education system [Doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto]. http://hdl.handle.net/1807/89049

Belay, Y. D. (2013). From “melting pot” to quest for recognition: The Kemant people in Ethiopia [Master’s thesis, International Institute for Social Studies]. https://thesis.eur.nl/pub/15353

Berhe, M. G., & Gebresilassie, F. H. (2020). Nationalism and self‐determination in contemporary Ethiopia. Nations and Nationalism, 27(1), 96-111. https://doi.org/10.1111/nana.12647 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/nana.12647

Berniker, E., & McNabb, D. E. (2006). Dialectical inquiry: A structured qualitative research method. The Qualitative Report, 11(4), 643-664. https://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol11/iss4/2

Bhatt, R. K., & Bhatt, S. C. (1994). Application of the historical method of research in the study of library and information science: an overview. Annals of Library science and documentation, 41(4), 155-160.

Brietzke, P. H. (1979). Law, development and the Ethiopian revolution [Doctoral dissertation, University of London]. https://www.proquest.com/docview/1978456185?pq-origsite=gscholar&fromopenview=true

Brincat, S. (2014). Dialectics and world politics: The story so far… Globalizations, 11(5), 587-604. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14747731.2014.972064

Bulatovich, A. (2000). Ethiopia through Russian eyes: Country in transition in 1896-1898. (R. Seltzer, trans. & ed.). Red Sea Press. (Original work Published 1897/1900)

Bulcha, M. (2005). Genocidal violence in the making of nation and state in Ethiopia. African Sociological Review/Revue Africaine de Sociologie, 9(2), 1-54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/asr.v9i2.23257

Carneiro, R. L. (1977). A theory of the origin of the state. Studies in Social Theory, 3, 3-21. Institute for Humane Studies.

Caselli, F., & Coleman, W. J. (2013). On the theory of ethnic conflict. Journal of the European Economic Association, 11(suppl_1), 161-192. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-4774.2012.01103.x

Celik, F. B. (n.d.). Analyzing the existing theories of ethnic conflict. https://www.academia.edu/23758468/ANALYSING_THE_EXISTING_THEORIES_OF_ETHNIC_CONFLICT

Channel 4 news. (2021, March 18). The horrors of the hidden war: Inside the Tigray conflict in Ethiopia [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g0OxwpFlaA0

Che, A. A. M. A. (2016). Linking instrumentalist and primordialist theories of ethnic conflict. E-International Relations, 1. https://www.e-ir.info/2016/06/01/linking-instrumentalist-and-primordialist-theories-of-ethnic-conflict/.

Clapham, C. (2009). From Haile-Selassie to Meles: Government, people and the nationalities question in Ethiopia. In Pausewang, S. (Ed.), Exploring New Political Alternatives for the Oromo in Ethiopia. Chr. Michelsen Institute, 14-19

CNN. (2021a, March 3). CNN exclusive: How religious festival turned into massacre. CNN report on Tigrai Genocide [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zOPFH5xrYWM

CNN. (2021b, April 21). Crises in Tigray, Ethiopia have a devastating impact on children - UNICEF on CNN with Becky Anderson. [Video file]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ts4LtngwjYM

CNN. (2021c, May 12). Something’s not right: See a tense confrontation between CNN crew and soldiers [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JalwHvcCBBk

De Waal, A. (1991). Evil days: Thirty years of war and famine in Ethiopia (Vol. 3169, No. 69). Human Rights Watch.

Easterly, W. (2000). "Can institutions resolve ethnic conflict?". Policy Research Working Paper 2482: The World Bank Development Research Group. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-2482

Esteban, J., Mayoral, L., & Ray, D. (2012). Ethnicity and conflict: Theory and facts. Science, 336(6083), 858-865. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1222240 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1222240

Fentaw, A. F. (2011). Greater Ethiopia: The evolution of a pluralist politico-legal system in a pluralist polity. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1909803

Fiseha, A. (2007). Constitutional adjudication in Ethiopia: Exploring the experience of the House of Federation (HoF). Mizan Law Review, 1(1), 1-32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/mlr.v1i1.55611

France 24. (2021a, May 12). Eye on Africa: Ethiopia Tigray crisis, Tigray risks as ‘anti-farming campaign’ underway claim official [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zEbIzLfmhLg&t=105s

France 24. (2021b, May 3). The debate: Which way for Ethiopia? Abiy Ahmed cracks Downon revolt ahead of election. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6o8VNDi2SdM&t=1081s

Gebissa, E. (Ed.). (2014). Contested Terrain: The Oromo and Ethiopian Studies. Lutheran University Press.

Gebru, S. G. (2009). Recognizing diversity as a tool for unity in Ethiopia: Challenges and opportunities. [Master’s thesis, University of Antwerp]. https://www.academia.edu/28385475/Recognizing_Diversity_as_a_Tool_for_Unity_in_Ethiopia_Challenges_and_Opportunities_MA_Thesis

Geleta, F. N. (2014) State of Oromia’s interest in Addis Ababa (Finfinnee): Undelivered constitutional promises. Publication of the Oromo Studies Association, 23. https://catalog.ihsn.org/index.php/citations/84737

Gemtessa, D. (2014). Abyssinia/Ethiopia: State formation and national state-building project comparative approach [Master’s thesis, University of Oslo]. http://urn.nb.no/URN:NBN:no-47891

Good Evening Ghana. (2021). The Ethiopian crisis: Alhassan Bello explains the history of the emerging conflict in Ethiopia [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=trlCgaRwhpk

Green, E. (2018). Ethnicity, national identity, and the state: Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa. British Journal of Political Science, 50(2), 757-779. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123417000783

Gudina, M. (2011). Ethiopia: From autocracy to revolutionary democracy, the 1960s – 2011. Addis Ababa University

Habtu, A. (2003). Ethnic federalism in Ethiopia: Background, present conditions and prospects. International Conference on African Development Archives. Paper 57. http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/africancenter_icad_archive/57

Halabo, T. T. (2019). The politics of ethnic identity and conflicts under ethnic federal system in Ethiopia. Journal of International Politics, 1(2), 15-27.

Heywood, A. (2003). Political Ideologies: An Introduction ( 3rd ed.). Palgrave Macmillan

Heywood, A. (2021). Political ideologies: An introduction (7th ed.). Red Globe Press.

Horowitz, D. L. (1998). Structure and strategy in ethnic conflict. World Bank.

Horst, I. S. (2020). Like Ho Chi Minh! Like Che Guevara! The revolutionary left in Ethiopia, 1969–1979. Foreign Languages Press.

Human Rights Watch. (2021). World report 2021: Ethiopia. https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2021/country-chapters/ethiopia DOI: https://doi.org/10.46692/9781447318491

International Rescue Committee. (2021). Crisis in Ethiopia: New conflict threatens the region. https://www.rescue.org/article/crisis-ethiopia-new-conflict-threatens-region

Jalata, A. (2010). The Oromo in Exile: Creating Knowledge and Promoting Social Justice. Sociology Publications and Other Works. http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_socopubs/72

Jalata, A. (2020). The Oromo movement and imperial politics: Culture and ideology in Oromia and Ethiopia. Lexington Books.

Jovita, J. T. (2015). Historical research: A qualitative research method. https://www.academia.edu/24276932/HISTORICAL_RESEARCH_A_QUALITATIVE_RESEARCH_METHOD

Kanbur, R., Rajaram, P. K., & Varshney, A. (2011). Ethnic diversity and ethnic strife: An interdisciplinary perspective. World Development, 39(2), 147-158. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.11.034

Keller, E. J. (2005). Making and remaking state and nation in Ethiopia. In R. R. Laremont (Ed.), Borders, nationalism, and the African State (pp. 87-134). Lynne Reinner. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781626371002-005

Keller, E. J., & Omwami, E. M. (2007). Federalism, citizenship and national identity in Ethiopia. The International Journal of African Studies, 6(1), 37-69.

Kumsa, A. (2014). The conflict between the Ethiopian State and the Oromo people. In African Dynamics in a Multipolar World: 5th European Conference on African Studies—Conference Proceedings (pp. 1112-1145). Centro de Estudos Internacionais do Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL).

Kumsa, A. (2019). The Oromo national memories. Journal of Sociology, 19(3), 503-516. https://doi.org/10.22363/2313-2272-2019-19-3-503-516 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22363/2313-2272-2019-19-3-503-516

Lavers, T. (2018). Responding to land-based conflict in Ethiopia: The land rights of Ethnic minorities under federalism. African Affairs, 117(468), 462–484. https://doi.org/10.1093/afraf/ady010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/afraf/ady010

Leenco, L. (2004). The horn of Africa as common homeland: The state and self-determination in the era of heightened globalization. Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

Legide, K. K.. (2019). The Quest For Regional Statehood And Its Practicability Under The Post-1991 Ethiopian Federation: The Discontents And Experience Of Sidama Nation. Global Journal of Politics and Law Research, Vol.7, No.7, pp.1-52

Levine, D. N. (1994). Greater Ethiopia: The evolution of a multiethnic society. University of Chicago Press.

Loukeris, K. (2001). Contending political ideologies in Ethiopia after 1991: The role of intellectuals. In 13th Biennial Congress of the African Association of Political Science in Yaounde, Cameroon.

Lubo, T. (2012). The post-1991 ‘inter-ethnic’ conflicts in Ethiopia: An investigation. Journal of Law and Conflict Resolution, 4(4), 62-69. https://doi.org/10.5897/JLCR11.045 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5897/JLCR11.045

Marcus, H. G. (1994). A history of Ethiopia. University of California Press. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft109nb00g/

Markakis, J. (2011). Ethiopia: The last two frontiers. Boydell & Brewer Ltd.

Markakis, J., & Ayele, N. (1986). Class and revolution in Ethiopia. The Red Sea Press. Trenton.

Matshanda, N. T. (2019). Constructing citizens and subjects in eastern Ethiopia: identity formation during the British Military Administration. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 13(4), 661-677. http://dio:10.1080/17531055.2019.1678927 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17531055.2019.1678927

Meckelburg, A. (2016). From “subject to citizen”? History, identity and minority citizenship: The case of the Mao and Komo of Western Ethiopia (Doctoral dissertation, Staats-und Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg Carl von Ossietzky). https://ediss.sub.uni-hamburg.de/handle/ediss/8036

Mengie, L. T. (2015). Ethnic federalism and conflict in Ethiopia: What lessons can other jurisdictions draw? African Journal of International and Comparative Law, 23(3), 462-475. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3366/ajicl.2015.0131

Mengisteab, K. (2007). Identity politics, democratization and state-building in Ethiopia's federal arrangement. African Journal on Conflict Resolution, 7(2), 63-92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/ajcr.v7i2.39411

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Dialectic. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dialectic

Mizan TV Center. (2021, April 18). Amhara manifesto inauguration [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEMSrbdAXrk

Monenus, H. (2017). EPRDF’s State-building Approach: Responsive or Unresponsive? IFF Working Paper Online No 22, Fribourg.

Moodie, M. (2009). Conflict trends in the 21st Century. Defense Technical Information Center. https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA515966

Moretti, V. D., Martins, E., & de Souza, F. D. (2016). Dialectical and historical method, cultural-historical theory and education: Some appropriation in research on education of teachers who teach mathematics. RIPEM, 6(2), 54-72.

Mulugeta A. W. (2005). A critical assessment of institutions, roles and leverage in public policymaking: Ethiopia, 1974-2004 [Doctoral dissertation, University of Stellenbosch]. https://scholar.sun.ac.za/handle/10019.1/1452

Nardos, H. Y. (2018). Citizenship vs. regional ownership: The untold causes of conflict in Ethiopia. Research & Reviews, 4. 326-330.

Nathanael D., Zarboutis, N., & Marmaras, N. (2015). Contradiction analysis: Towards a dialectical approach in ergonomics field interventions. Production, 25(1), 223-231, jan./mar. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-65132014005000022 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-65132014005000022

OCHA. (2021). Ethiopia - Tigray region humanitarian update: Situation report. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Situation%20Report%20-%20Ethiopia%20-%20Tigray%20Region%20Humanitarian%20Update%20-%2028%20Feb%202021.pdf

Pankhurst, R. (1985). History of Ethiopian towns: From the mid-nineteenth century to 1935. Stuhgart franz Stein Verlag.

Pausewang, S. (2005). The two-faced Amhara identity. Scrinium, 1(1), 273-286. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/18177565-90000138

Pausewang, S. (2009). Exploring new political alternatives for the Oromo in Ethiopia. Report from Oromo workshop and its after-effects. Chr. Michelsen Institute.

Priest, H., Roberts, P., & Woods, L. (2002). An overview of three different approaches to the interpretation of qualitative data. Part 1: Theoretical issues. Nurse Researcher, 10(1), 30-42. https://doi.org/10.7748/nr2002.10.10.1.30.c5877 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7748/nr2002.10.10.1.30.c5877

Qoute.org. (n.d). Menelik II (1889-1909), Emperor of Ethiopia, Message to the European Powers. https://www.quote.org/quote/i-have-no-intention-of-being-an-607290

Richards, S., & Bekele, G. (2011). Conflict in the Somali region of Ethiopia: Can education promote peace-building. Tufts University.

Seligman, J. (2013). Dialectical inquiry – does it deliver? A user-based research experience. The Qualitative Report, 18(78), 1-23. http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR18/seligman78.pdf

Taye, B. A. (2017). Ethnic federalism and conflict in Ethiopia. African Journal on Conflict Resolution, 17(2), 41-66.

Teachers Pay Teachers. (n.d). Imperialism Primary Source Analysis of Menelik II Letter to Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Russia. https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Imperialism-Primary-Source-Analysis-of-Menelik-II-Letter-3196838

Tellis, A. J., Szayna, T. S., & Winnefeld, J. A. (2000). The process model for anticipating ethnic conflict. In T. S. Szayna (Ed.), Identifying potential ethnic conflict: Application of a process model (pp. 17-73). Rand Corporation.

Terara Network. (2021, April 9). አማራ ብሔርተኝነት ምን ይፈልጋል (Trans. What do Ahara nationalism want)? What is the goal of Amhara Nationalism? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iFM8_REte40

Tilahune, H. T. (2016). Imperial Ethiopia: Conquest and the case of national articulation. Tapestries: Interwoven voices of local and global identities, 5(1), 3.

Tronvol, K. (2000). Ethiopia: A new start? Minority Right Group International Report.

UN. (2021). Statement by the special adviser of the Secretary-General on the prevention of genocide, Alice Wairimu Nderitu, on the situation in Ethiopia. United Nations Press Release.

UNICEF. (2021). ETHIOPIA Humanitarian Situation: Tigray Crisis Situation Report No.1. https://www.unicef.org/media/91161/file/Ethiopia-Humanitarian-SitRep-Tigray-Crisis-14-January-2021.pdf

USAID. (2021). Ethiopia – Tigray conflict. Fact sheet #1. https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/02.03.2021_Tigray_Fact_Sheet_1.pdf

Van Der Beken, C. (2007). Ethiopia: Constitutional protection of Ethnic minorities at the regional level. Afrika Focus, 20(1-2), 105-151. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/2031356X-0200102006

Van Veen, E. (2016). Perpetuating power: Ethiopia's political settlement and the organization of security. Netherlands Institute of International Relations.

Varshney, A. (2007). Ethnicity and ethnic conflict. The Oxford handbook of comparative politics. http://ashutoshvarshney.net/category/articles/ethnocommunal-conflict-and-nationalism/

Vaughan, S., & Tronvoll, K. (2003). The culture of power in contemporary Ethiopian political life. SIDA Studies No. IO

Venkatasawmy R. (2015). Ethnic conflict and development in Africa: A short critical discussion. Transcience, 6(2), 26-37.

Vestal, T. M. (2008). An American’s view of the horn of Africa from World War II to the present. Horn Of Africa, 25, 71-89.

Wilford, R. (2003). Fascism. In R. Eccleshall, A. Finlayson, V. Geoghegan, M. Kenny, M. Lloyd, I. MacKenzie, & R. Wilford (Eds.), Political ideology: An introduction. (3rd ed., pp. 119-150). Taylor & Francis.

Wimmer, A. (2002). Nationalist exclusion and ethnic conflict: Shadows of modernity. Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511490415

Wogu, I. A. P. (2013). An analysis of the controversy between dialectical materialism and historical materialism as a methodology of science. Indian Journal of Arts, 3(9), 17-23.

Woldegiorgis, G. M. (2010). Ethiopia: Conflict Profile. Concept Paper on the Conflict Profile of Ethiopia. https://land.igad.int/index.php/documents-1/countries/ethiopia/conflict-1/53-ethiopia-conflict-profile-2010/file

Woldeyes, Y. G. (2017). Native colonialism: Education and the economy of violence against traditions in Ethiopia. The Red Sea Press.

Worku, M., Z. (2018). How multilingual policies can fail: Language politics among Ethiopian political parties. In J. Kandybowicz, T. Major, H. Torrence, & P. T. Duncan (Eds.), African linguistics on the prairie: Selected papers from the 45th Annual Conference on African Linguistics (pp. 65–83). Language Science Press. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1251716

Wyche, S., Sengers, P., & Grinter, R. E. (2006). Historical analysis: Using the past to design the future. In International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (pp. 35-51). Springer, Berlin. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/11853565_3

Yates, B. J. (2020). The other Abyssinians: The northern Oromo and the creation of modern Ethiopia, 1855-1913. University of Rochester Press, Rochester. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781787446533

Yeshiwas, D. A. (2018). Transactive approach: Explaining dynamics of ethnicity and inter-ethnic conflicts in post-1991 Ethiopia. International Journal of Education, Culture and Society, 3(4), 68-77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijecs.20180304.11

Záhořík, J. (2014). Colonial Perspective and Nationalism (s) in Ethiopia in the Context of African Decolonization.

Zerai, A. (2017). From making Ethiopia safe for ethnic diversity to making ethnic diversity safe for Ethiopia: The Ethiopian political elites’ new challenge. https://hornaffairs.com/2017/08/19/making-ethnic-diversity-safe-for-ethiopia-political-elites-new-challenge/ Accessed on 01/09/2021

Zewde, B. (1991). A history of modern Ethiopia 1855-1991 (2nd ed.). Addis Ababa University Press.

Downloads

Published

2022-02-02

How to Cite

Moreda, T. A. (2022). The Imperial Regimes as a Root of Current Ethnic Based Conflicts in Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 9(1), 95–130. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/919

Issue

Section

Original Manuscript