Kazakhstan’s Society Modernization in Response to the 21st Century Global Challenges: The Material Aspect and the Shifting Discourse Issue

Abstract views: 356 / PDF downloads: 156





acceleration, capital, material and spiritual modernization, innovation, model


The purpose of this study is to examine the current aspects of former Soviet society modernization in the context of global challenges of the 21st century. The study uses Kazakhstan as an example. The primary focus of this paper is on the comparative analysis of the global dynamics of economic development trends regarding OECD and Kazakhstan. The study’s methodology entails a historiographical analysis of recent works on modernization issues in contemporary societies. Modernization is seen as a part of the complicated process of the world becoming more global as the capitalist system changes. Modernization phenomena are analyzed quantitatively and phenomenologically within the framework of the research methodology. The study used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze statistical data on economic development in Kazakhstan. The applied quantitative analysis techniques constructed a regression model of modernization prospects based on the factor of labour productivity and gross savings. Qualitative interpretations in this study were based on phenomenological and analytical approaches in the philosophical sciences. This study focused on a new theory of modernization that views it from the perspective of social acceleration and the pursuit of sustainability in the protection of traditional spirituality within the context of modernization. In practice, this model enables the exploration of various modernization trajectories. It will be useful in the creation of the corresponding state development programmes of Kazakhstan. In this way, the spiritual modernization of society will help build a work ethic, an economy based on knowledge and innovation, a social consensus, and a space where people from different backgrounds can live together.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Laura Zhumasheva, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University

Laura Zhumasheva, Corresponding Author: Doctoral Student of Department of Philosophy, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana, Republic of Kazakhstan. Her current research interests are cultural studies, social sciences, and humanities. E-Mail: zhumasheva_lzh@enu.kz.


Zhabaikhan Abdildin , L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University

Zhabaikhan Abdildin, Doctor of Philosophical Science, Department of Philosophy, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana, Republic of Kazakhstan. His current research interests are innovations, material and spiritual modernization, and economy.


Saltanat Aubakirova, Toraighyrov University

Saltanat Aubakirova, PhD, Department of Social Sciences, Journalism and Information, Toraighyrov University, Pavlodar, Republic of Kazakhstan. Her current research interests are culture, society and economic theory. E-Mail: aubakirova.sa@teachers.tou.edu.kz



Abdulaeva, E. (2019). Modernisation processes in the spiritual culture of traditional societies. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and cultural transformations in the context of modern globalism. European proceedings of social and behavioural sciences (Vol. 58, pp. 1850–1856). Grozny: EP. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.215 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.215

Adilkhanov, Z. (2019). Analysis of the main influencing factors of Kazakhstan’s modernization. Internauka, 8, 68–69.

Adkins, L. C. (2018). Using gretl for Principles of Econometrics, 5th Edition Version 1.0. GNU Free Documentation License. http://www.LearnEconometrics.com/gretl.html

Adloff, F., & Neckel, S. (2019). Futures of sustainability as modernization, transformation, and control: A conceptual framework. Sustainability Science, 14, 1015–1025. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-019-00671-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-019-00671-2

Agnew, J. (2021). Immanuel Wallerstein, the “modern world-system,” and radical human geography. Human Geography, 14(1), 17–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/1942778620974056 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1942778620974056

Agumbayeva, A. Y., Chmyshenko, E. Gr., Pulyaev, N. N., Bunkovsky, D. V., Kolesov, K. I. & Amirova, E. F. (2019). Industrial transformation of Kazakhstan in the digitalisation era. Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics, 6(44), 1861–1867. https://doi.org/10.14505/jarle.v10.6(44)28

Berberoglu, B. (2019). The Marxist theory of social movements, revolution, and social transformation. In B. Berberoglu (Ed.), The Palgrave handbook of social movements, revolution, and social transformation (pp. 65–83). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-92354-3_4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-92354-3_4

Bičevskis, R. (2022). Boundaries of modernity: History-Nature-Society-The World (Modernitātes robežas: vēsture-daba-sabiedrība-pasaule). Letonica, 44, 16–37. https://doi.org/10.35539/ltnc.2022.0044.r.b.0002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.35539/LTNC.2022.0044.R.B.0002

Carmouze, L., & Sandry, A. (2020). Complex thinking and computing organization facing contingent problems. Public Organization Review, 20, 401–419. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11115-019-00449-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11115-019-00449-1

Coleman, J. S. (2019). Prologue: Constructed social organisation. In P. Bourdieu & J. S. Coleman (Eds.), Social theory for changing society (pp. 1–20). New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429306440-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429306440-1

Corbett, S., Courtiol, A., Lummaa, V., Moorad, J., & Stearns, S. (2018). The transition to modernity and chronic disease: Mismatch and natural selection. Nature Reviews Genetics, 19(7), 419–430. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41576-018-0012-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41576-018-0012-3

Delanty, G. (2019). Formations of European modernity. Cham: Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-95435-6

Diamond, P. (2019). The great globalization disruption: Democracy, capitalism and inequality in the industrialized world. In P. Diamond (Ed.), The crisis of globalisation Democracy, capitalism and inequality in the twenty-first century (pp. 1–24). London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781788316309.0006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5040/9781788316309.0006

Evers, H. D. (2022). The civilising process: World figuration or world system? In A. Bogner & S. Mennell (Eds.), Civilisations, civilising processes and modernity: A debate: Palgrave Studies on Norbert Elias (pp. 17–23). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-80379-7_2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-80379-7_2

Feofanov, K. A. (2019). Civilisational theory of modernisation. Publishing and Trading Corporation “Dashkov and K°”.

Grillo, F., & Nanetti, R. Y. (2018). Democracy and growth in the twenty-first century: The diverging cases of China and Italy. Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02014-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02014-9

Grinin, L. (2022). Revolutions of the twenty-first century as a factor in the world system reconfiguration. In J. A. Goldstone, L. Grinin, A. Korotayev (Eds.), Handbook of revolutions in the 21st century: Societies and political orders in transition (pp. 975–999). Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-86468-2_38 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-86468-2_38

Grunwald, A. (2021). Research and scientific advice in the second modernity: Technology assessment, responsible research and innovation, and sustainability research. Sustainability, 13(18), 10406. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810406 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810406

Hilbert, M. (2020). Digital technology and social change: the digital transformation of society from a historical perspective. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 22(2), 189–104. https://doi.org/10.31887/DCNS.2020.22.2/mhilbert DOI: https://doi.org/10.31887/DCNS.2020.22.2/mhilbert

Johnstone, I. (2022). Global governance and the Global Green New Deal: The G7’s role. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 9, 33. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-022-01046-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-022-01046-2

Karimov, R., & Bekbaev, R. (2022). The traditionalism of rene guenon in the discourse of philosophy of history and social anthropology. Wisdom, 21(1), 194–202. https://doi.org/10.24231/wisdom.v21i1.712 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24234/wisdom.v21i1.712

Kenesheva, G., & Alimbayev, A. (2018). Technological modernisation of industry. Journal of Applied Economic Sciences, 62, 2416–2426.

Kirby, B. (2019). Pentecostalism, economics, capitalism: Putting the protestant ethic to work. Religion, 49(4), 571–591. https://doi.org/10.1080/0048721x.2019.1573767 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0048721X.2019.1573767

Koerner, K. F. (2019). Liberalism and its critics (Vol. 33). Cham: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429279577

Li, S., Zhou, C., & Wang, S. (2019). Does modernization affect carbon dioxide emissions? A panel data analysis. Science of The Total Environment, 663, 426–435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.373

Luckmann, T. (2019). The new and the old in religion. In P. Bourdieu & J. S. Coleman (Eds.), Social theory for changing society (pp. 167–188). Cham: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429306440-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429306440-6

Mezhuev, B. (2021). Civilisation and modernity. In E. Chebankova & P. Dutkiewicz (Eds.), Civilizations and world order (pp. 92–107). Cham: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780367822378 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780367822378-7

Mokyr, J. (2017). A culture of growth: The origins of the modern economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400882915

Moldagaliyev, B. E., Smagulov, M., Satershinov, B. M., & Sagikyzy, A. (2015). Synthesis of traditional and Islamic values in Kazakhstan. European Journal of Science and Theology, 11(5), 217–229.

Popkova, E., Bogoviz, A. V., & Sergi, B. S. (2021). Towards digital society management and 'capitalism 4.0' in contemporary Russia. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 8, 77. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-021-00743-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-021-00743-8

Pozdnyakova, U. A., Golikov, V. V., Peters I. A., & Morozova I. A. (2019). Genesis of the revolutionary transition to Industry 4.0 in the 21st century and overview of previous industrial revolutions. In E. G. Popkova, Y. V. Ragulina, & A. V. Bogoviz (Eds.), Industry 4.0: Industrial revolution of the 21st century, studies in systems, decision and control 169 (pp. 11–19). Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-94310-7_2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-94310-7_2

Raihan, A., & Tuspekova, A. (2022). Role of economic growth, renewable energy, and technological innovation to achieve environmental sustainability in Kazakhstan. Current Research in Environmental Sustainability, 4, 100165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crsust.2022.100165 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crsust.2022.100165

Rosa, H. (2013). Social acceleration: A new theory of modernity. Columbia: Columbia University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7312/rosa14834

Rozin, V. (2020). The pandemic, the crisis of modernity, and the need for a new semantic project of civilization. Philosophy and Cosmology, 25(25), 32–42. https://doi.org/10.29202/phil-cosm/25/3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.29202/phil-cosm/25/3

Sachs, J. D., Schmidt-Traub, G., Mazzucato, M., Messner, D., Nakicenovic, N., & Rockström, J. (2019). Six transformations to achieve the sustainable development goals. Nature Sustainability, 2, 805–814. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-019-0352-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-019-0352-9

Sadik-Zada, E. R. (2020). Natural resources, technological progress, and economic modernisation. Review of Development Economics, 25(1), 381–404. https://doi.org/10.1111/rode.12716 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/rode.12716

Sadyrova, M., Yusupov, K., & Imanbekova, B. (2021). Innovation processes in Kazakhstan: Development factors. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 10, 36. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13731-021-00183-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13731-021-00183-3

Sage, N. (2022). 4: Theories of development: from modernisation to post‑development and beyond. In N. Sage (Ed.), The short guide to international development (pp. 47–76). Bristol: Policy Press. https://doi.org/10.51952/9781447348856.ch004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.51952/9781447348856.ch004

Schwab, K. (2017). The fourth industrial revolution. New York: Currency.

Sikhimbayeva, D., Shyngysbayev, L. & Nurmoldina, I. (2021). Foundations of secularity: Global experience and Kazakhstan. Central Asia & the Caucasus, 22(1), 98–105. https://doi.org/10.37178/ca-c.21.1.09 DOI: https://doi.org/10.37178/ca-c.21.1.09

Sørensen, M. P., & Christiansen, A. (2013). Ulrich Beck: An introduction to the theory of second modernity and the risk society. New York: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-04990-8_2

Stavbunik, Y., & Pělucha, M. (2019). The innovation system of Kazakhstan in the context of the Global Innovation Index. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, 24(1), 1–23.

Stewart-Weeks, M. (2020). From control to networks. In H. K. Colebatch (Ed.), Beyond the policy cycle: The policy process in Australia (pp. 184–202). London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003115052-12 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003115052-12

Stock, J. H., & Watson, M. W. (2020). Introduction to Econometrics. Fourth Edition. Global Edition. New York: Pearson Education Limited.

Sullivan, C. J. (2018). Kazakhstan at a crossroads. Asia Policy, 13(2), 121–136. https://doi.org/10.1353/asp.2018.0028 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/asp.2018.0028

Toimbek, D. (2022). Problems and perspectives of transition to the knowledge-based economy in Kazakhstan. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 13, 1088–1125. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13132-021-00742-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13132-021-00742-9

Tomalin, E. (2018). Religions, poverty reduction and global development institutions. Palgrave Communications, 4, 132. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-018-0167-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-018-0167-8

Tsakalerou, M., & Abilez, A. (2023). The paradox of Kazakhstan: Linear vs harmonic innovation. Procedia Computer Science, 217, 1734–1743. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2022.12.373 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2022.12.373

Veresha, R. V. (2016). Criminal and legal characteristics of criminal intent. Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics (JARLE), 7(21), 1881-1890.

Vodolazskaya, N. (2019). Types and ways of modernization in the context of the international experience. Virtual Economics, 2(1), 82–94. https://doi.org/10.34021/ve.2019.02.01(5) DOI: https://doi.org/10.34021/ve.2019.02.01(5)

Wallerstein, I. (2013). Structural crisis or why capitalists may no longer find capitalism rewarding. In I. Wallerstein (Ed.), Does capitalism have a future? (pp. 9–35). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

World Development Indicators. (2023). World Bank Group. https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators

Yerzhanova, A., Madalieva, Z., Imanmoldayeva, B., & Rakhimova, G. (2022). Consent strategies: Cultural and civilizational paradigms for communicative rationality and axiological identity. Philosophies, 7(6), 129. https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies7060129 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies7060129




How to Cite

Zhumasheva, L., Abdildin , Z., & Aubakirova, S. (2023). Kazakhstan’s Society Modernization in Response to the 21st Century Global Challenges: The Material Aspect and the Shifting Discourse Issue. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 10(4), 81–101. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/1582



Original Manuscript
Received 2023-02-17
Accepted 2023-08-19
Published 2023-09-19