Thoughts on Incivility: A Preliminary Study to Identify Uncivil Behavior in Indonesian Higher Education

Abstract views: 1480 / PDF downloads: 431


  • Ani Cahyadi Tarbiyah and Teacher Training Faculty, Universitas Islam Negeri Antasari, Banjarmasin, Indonesia
  • Hendryadi Hendryadi Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Indonesia Jakarta
  • Suryani Suryani Faculty of Islamic Economics and Business, Islamic State Institute of Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Indonesia



classroom incivility, Indonesia, preliminary research, uncivil behavior.


This preliminary study aims to identify an item list of uncivil behaviors in the Indonesian educational environment. The study comprises three phases: first, a panel of experts assessed each item to ensure their content validity for items pool. The second phase used a cross-sectional design and convenience sampling to recruit 524 students and faculty members in seven provinces in Indonesia using an online survey. The third phase involved ten students from the second phase and several faculty representatives were randomly selected to complete the open-ended questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified four factors, including disregard for instructors/annoyances, disrespect for others (verbal and non-verbal), misconduct and integrity violation, and use of cell phones. Furthermore, the results indicate that "getting up during a class,leaving and returning,” “arriving late and/or leaving early," “not paying attention in the class,” “texting,” “packing books before the class is dismissed,” “cheating during an exam,” and “sleeping during the class” were the top seven highest recurring behaviors. This study provides tentative support for a preliminary scale in identifying uncivil behavior among college populations in Indonesia.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Ani Cahyadi, Tarbiyah and Teacher Training Faculty, Universitas Islam Negeri Antasari, Banjarmasin, Indonesia

Dr. Ani Cahyadi is a Senior Lecturer in the Islamic State University (UIN) Antasari, Banjarmasin, Indonesia. His area of interest is education technology, learning management system, and religious education. Email:

Hendryadi Hendryadi, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Indonesia Jakarta

Hendryadi is a lecturer at Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Indonesia Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia. His current research interests are Islamic work ethics, leadership, workplace incivility, and quantitative research methods. Email:

Suryani Suryani, Faculty of Islamic Economics and Business, Islamic State Institute of Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Indonesia

Dr. Suryani is an Associate Professor at the Islamic State Institute of Lhokseumawe. Her research interests include organizational culture, leadership, and ethics from the Islamic perspective. Email:


Al-Jubouri, M. B., Samson-Akpan, P., & Jaafar, S. A. (2019). Validity and reliability of the Arabic version of the incivility in nursing education-revised scale. International journal of nursing education scholarship, 16(1). DOI:

Al-Jubouri, M. B., Samson-Akpan, P., Al-Fayyadh, S., Contreras, F. A. M., Unim, B., Stefanovic, S. M., &Radabutr, M. (2020). Incivility among nursing faculty: A multi-country study. Journal of Professional Nursing. DOI:

Andersson, L. M., & Pearson, C. M. (1999). Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 74, 452–471. DOI:

Bai, Q., Liu, S., &Kishimoto, T. (2019). School incivility and academic burnout: The mediating role of perceived peer support and the moderating role of future academic self-salience. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. DOI:

Bjorklund, W. L., & Rehling, D. L. (2009). Student perceptions of classroom incivility. College Teaching, 58(1), 15-18. DOI:

Chory, R. M., &Offstein, E. H. (2016). Too close for comfort? Faculty–student multiple relationships and their impact on student classroom conduct. Ethics & Behavior, 28(1), 23-44. DOI:

Chory, R. M., &Offstein, E. H. (2017). Outside the classroom walls: Perceptions of professor inappropriate out-of-class conduct and student classroom incivility among American business students. Journal of Academic Ethics, 15(3), 197-214. DOI:

Connelly, R. (2009). Introducing a culture of civility in first-year college classes. The Journal of General Education,58(1), 47-64. DOI:

Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2017). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. SAGE Publications.

Eka, N. G, & Chambers, D. (2019). Incivility in nursing education: A systematic literature review.Nurse Education in Practice,39, 45-54. DOI:

Farrell, A. H., Provenzano, D. A., Spadafora, N., Marini, Z. A., & Volk, A. A. (2016). Measuring adolescent attitudes toward classroom incivility: Exploring differences between intentional and unintentional incivility. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 34(6), 577-588. DOI:

Feldmann, L. J. (2001). Classroom civility is another of our instructor responsibilities. College Teaching, 49(4), 137-140. DOI:

Fritz, C., Park, Y., & Shepherd, B. R. (2019). Workplace incivility ruins my sleep and yours: The costs of being in a work-linked relationship. Occupational Health Science, 3(1), 1-21. DOI:

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J. and Anderson, R.E. (2010), Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.) Prentice Hall.

Halpern, C. (2017). Book Review: In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. American Journal of Qualitative Research, 1(1), 32-36. DOI:

Hendryadi, H. (2017). Validitas isi: Tahap awal pengembangan kuesioner [Content validity: The initial stage of questionnaire development]. Jurnal Riset Manajemen dan Bisnis (JRMB) Fakultas Ekonomi UNIAT, 2(2), 169-178. DOI:

Ibrahim, S. A. E. A., & Qalawa, S. A. (2016). Factors affecting nursing students' incivility: As perceived by students and faculty staff. Nurse education today, 36, 118-123. DOI:

Khairuddin, A. Z., Abd Razak, A., Idrus, F., & Ismail, N. A. H. (2019). Challenges of Offering Peace Education among Educational Leaders: A Case Study of Malaysian Public Primary School. American Journal of Qualitative Research, 3(1), 57-71. DOI:

Marini, Z. (2009). 10. The thin line between civility and incivility: Fostering reflection and self-awareness to create a civil learning community. Collected Essays on Learning and Teaching, 2, 61-67. DOI:

McCarthy, J. L., Giblin‐Scanlon, L., Perry, K. R., Boyd, L. D., & Vineyard, J. (2020). Faculty perceptions of student incivility in dental hygiene education. Journal of Dental Education. 1-10. DOI:

McKinne, M., & Martin, B. N. (2010). Higher education faculty and student perceptions of classroom incivility. Journal of College and Character, 11(2). DOI:

Mohammadipour, M., Hasanvand, S., Goudarzi, F., Ebrahimzadeh, F., & Pournia, Y. (2018). The level and frequency of faculty incivility as perceived by nursing students of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Medicine and Life, 11(4), 334.

Moradi, E &Ghabanchi, G. (2019). Intercultural sensitivity: A comparative study among Business English Undergraduate Learners in two Countries of Iran and China. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 6(3), 134-146. DOI:

Natarajan, J., Muliira, J. K., & van der Colff, J. (2017). Incidence and perception of nursing students’ academic incivility in Oman. BMC nursing, 16(1), 19. DOI:

Osinski, K. (2003). Due process rights of nursing students in cases of misconduct. Journal of Nursing Education, 42(2), 55-58. DOI:

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 539-569. DOI:

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2006). The content validity index: are you sure you know what's being reported? Critique and recommendations. Research in Nursing & Health, 29(5), 489-497. DOI:

Rahim, A., &Cosby, D. M. (2016). A model of workplace incivility, job burnout, turnover intentions, and job performance. Journal of Management Development, 35(10), 1255–1265. DOI:

Sauer, P. A., Thompson, C. E., & Verzella, M. M. (2018). Empowering nursing students to address incivility. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 21, 40-45. DOI:

Schilpzand, P., De Pater, I. E., &Erez, A. (2016). Workplace incivility: A review of the literature and agenda for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37, S57-S88. DOI:

Segrist, D., Bartels, L. K., & Nordstrom, C. R. (2018). “But everyone else is doing it:” A social norms perspective on classroom incivility. College Teaching, 66(4), 181-186. DOI:

Spadafora, N., Frijters, J., Molnar, D., & Volk, A. (2020). Do little annoyances relate to bullying? The links between personality, attitudes towards classroom incivility, and bullying. The Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 1-9. doi:10.1017/edp.2019.20 DOI:

Tehseen, S., Ramayah, T., &Sajilan, S. (2017). Testing and controlling for common method variance: A review of available methods. Journal of Management Sciences, 4(2), 142-168. Doi: 10.20547/jms.2014.1704202 DOI:

Vuolo, J. (2018). Student nurses' experiences of incivility and the impact on learning and emotional wellbeing. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 8(4), 102-111. Retrieved from DOI:

Weger, H (2017). Instructor active empathic listening and classroom incivility, International Journal of Listening, 00: 1–16. DOI:

Welbourne, J. L., Miranda, G., & Gangadharan, A. (2020). Effects of employee personality on the relationships between experienced incivility, emotional exhaustion, and perpetrated incivility. International Journal of Stress Management. Advance online publication. DOI:

Ziefle, K. (2018). Incivility in nursing education: Generational differences. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 13(1), 27-30. DOI:




How to Cite

Cahyadi, A., Hendryadi, H., & Suryani, S. (2020). Thoughts on Incivility: A Preliminary Study to Identify Uncivil Behavior in Indonesian Higher Education. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 8(1), 129–142.



Original Manuscript