Using Multi-Group Invariance Analysis in Exploring Cross-Cultural Differences in Mathematics Anxiety: A Comparison of Australia and Russia

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  • Zara Ersozlu Lecturer in Education (Mathematics Education) Faculty of Arts and Education, School of Education
  • Muhammet Usak Kazan Federal University
  • Damian Blake Faculty of Arts and Education, School of Education, Deakin University



cross cultural comparison, mathematics anxiety, multi-group invariance analysis


Mathematics anxiety is well known and studied concept. Most of the studies have been focused on the effects of mathematical anxiety on students’ academic achievement, especially from the viewpoint of analysing large national and international data sets. We aim to bring a different perspective to the existing research on mathematics anxiety and resilience by considering the measurement equivalence across cultures, so they can be compared fairly. We used Multi Group Invariance analysis with this purpose. Our findings suggested that full metric and partial scalar model invariance were confirmed which advise that the mathematics anxiety scale can be compared across two countries. We also ran multiple regression using Fisher’s Z to understand the reciprocal relationship among the variables across two samples. Preliminary results revealed that the perceived mathematics anxiety and perceived mathematics ability predict the measured mathematics anxiety equally well for both Australia and Russia.


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Author Biographies

Zara Ersozlu, Lecturer in Education (Mathematics Education) Faculty of Arts and Education, School of Education

primary and secondary mathematics education and teacher education; psychology of maths; assessment in maths; statistics education; mathematical modelling and problem solving; virtual simulated learning and technology; research methodology; educational big data and learning analytics.

Muhammet Usak, Kazan Federal University

Scientific and Educational Center of Pedagogical Researches

Damian Blake, Faculty of Arts and Education, School of Education, Deakin University

pedagogy and education, adult education, research methodology, teacher preparation and education, e-learning, collaborative learning, online learning.


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How to Cite

Ersozlu, Z., Usak, M., & Blake, D. (2022). Using Multi-Group Invariance Analysis in Exploring Cross-Cultural Differences in Mathematics Anxiety: A Comparison of Australia and Russia. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 9(1), 1–18.



Original Manuscript