European Integration Processes in EECCA: Dependencies and Drivers
Abstract views: 380 / PDF downloads: 117
Keywords:Eastern Europe, economic growth, export-led growth, foreign debt, neofunctionalism
The study was conducted using comparative quantitative and qualitative analysis of World Bank and International Monetary Fund data for 1989-2020 and 2000-2020. Two-factor linear econometric models of economic growth in 11 countries of Central and Eastern Europe (depending on their exports and debt) were built on the basis of such analysis. The study also relied on data from the Pew Research Center's Spring 2019 Global Attitudes Survey regarding EU citizens’ attitudes toward integration. The research findings were used to examine the causes and consequences of European integration for the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Since 2004, when the first wave of EU enlargement took place, the combined weight of the economies of Central and Eastern Europe in relation to the EU has increased from 6.7% to 10.8% in 2020. On the other hand, none of the countries that have joined the EU have reached Europe-wide labor productivity. Assessment of the possible accession of other countries of the former eastern bloc revealed that Kazakhstan, where productivity in 2020 reached 58.4% of the average achieved in the EU, has the most enabling economic environment. In this context, Kazakhstan outperformed Bulgaria, where such a parameter amounted to 53.5%. During 1995-2000, the multiple of the ratio between the minimum and maximum levels of per capita GDP in the group of countries under study ranged from 6.3 to 7.7 times. Fifteen years after the first wave of accession to the EU, this figure has decreased to 2.5 times. Proposals to reduce regional economic inequality based on the econometric models have been developed.
Achmad, M., Ashariana, A., & Nurkadarwati, N. (2022). The governments’ use of social networking sites (SNS) to promote citizens’ trust during the COVID-19: Perceived religious values as a moderator. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 9(4), 156–186. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/1383 DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/1383
Andrén, M. (2017). Cultural Borders and European integration. Centrum för Europaforskning vid Göteborgs universitet. Skrift nr 31. Göteborg: Kompendiet. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Klas-Grinell/publication/336847083_Integrating_Europe_-_The_integration_of_Islam_into_Europe_Handbook_solutions/links/5db6a4f54585155e270b5d53/Integrating-Europe-The-integration-of-Islam-into-Europe-Handbook-solutions.pdf#page=97
Barbé, E., & Morillas, P. (2019). The EU global strategy: The dynamics of a more politicized and politically integrated foreign policy. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 32(6), 753–770. https://doi.org/10.1080/09557571.2019.1588227 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09557571.2019.1588227
Bohle, D. (2017). European integration, capitalist diversity and crises trajectories on Europe’s eastern periphery. New Political Economy, 23(2), 239–253. https://doi.org/10.1080/13563467.2017.1370448 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13563467.2017.1370448
Brie, M., Polgár, I., & Chirodea, F. (Eds.) (2012). European Union: Identity, diversity and integration. Oradea: Editura Universităţii din Oradea. https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-329489
Campos, N. F., Coricelli, F., & Moretti, L. (2019). Institutional integration and economic growth in Europe. Journal of Monetary Economics, 103, 88–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoneco.2018.08.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoneco.2018.08.001
Chryssochoou, D. N. (2009). Theorizing European integration. Routledge Taylor & Francis. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203946107
Hagemejer, J., Michałek, J. J., & Svatko, P. (2021). Economic impact of the EU Eastern enlargement on New Member States revisited: The role of economic institutions. Central European Economic Journal, 8(55), 126–143. https://doi.org/10.2478/ceej-2021-0008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/ceej-2021-0008
Hodson, D., & Puetter, U. (2019). The European Union in disequilibrium: new intergovernmentalism, postfunctionalism and integration theory in the post-Maastricht period. Journal of European Public Policy, 26(8), 1153–1171. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.156 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1569712
Hooghe, L., & Marks, G. (2019). Grand theories of European integration in the twenty-first century. Journal of European Public Policy, 26(8), 1113–1133. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1569711 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1569711
Iammarino, S., Rodriguez-Pose, A., & Storper, M. (2019). Regional inequality in Europe: evidence, theory and policy implications. Journal of Economic Geography, 19(2), 273–298. https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lby021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lby021
International Monetary Fund (2022). World economic outlook database. https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/weo-database/2022/April
Konieczna-Sałamatin, J., & Sawicka, M. (2021). The East of the West, or the West of the East? Attitudes toward the European Union and European Integration in Poland after 2008. East European Politics and Societies, 35(2), 363–383. https://doi.org/10.1177/0888325420926633 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0888325420926633
Kuhn, T. (2019). Grand theories of European integration revisited: Does identity politics shape the course of European integration? Journal of European Public Policy, 26(8), 1213–1230. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1622588 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1622588
Maher, R. (2021). International relations theory and the future of European integration. International Studies Review, 23(1), 89–114. https://doi.org/10.1093/isr/viaa010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/isr/viaa010
Moravcsik, A. (2018). Preferences, power and institutions in 21st‐century Europe. Journal of Common Market Studies, 56(7), 1648–1674. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcms.12804 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jcms.12804
Nowotny, E. (2019). Introductory remarks: 30 years of transition: United in diversity. Focus on European Economic Integration, 3(19), 7–9.
Ortega-Villaseñor, H. (2022). Indigenous peoples, memory and envisioning the future: A brief multidimensional study. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 9(1), 39–55. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/963 DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/963
Papp, M., & Varju, M. (2019). The crisis, economic patriotism in Central Europe and EU law. In L. Antoniolli, L. Bonatti, & C. Ruzza (Eds.), Highs and lows of European integration (pp. 143–163). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93626-0_9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93626-0_9
Schimmelfennig, F. (2018). Regional integration theory. In W. R. Thompson (Ed.), Oxford research encyclopedia of politics (pp. 1–8). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.599 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.599
Schimmelfennig, F., & Sedelmeier, U. (2020). The Europeanization of Eastern Europe: The external incentives model revisited. Journal of European Public Policy, 27(6), 814–833. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1617333 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1617333
Schmidt, V. A. (2019). Politicization in the EU: Between national politics and EU political dynamics. Journal of European Public Policy, 26(7), 1018–1036. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.16119189 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1619189
The World Bank (2022). World development indicators. https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators
Vaduva, S. (2016). Between globalization and integration: The Europeanization of Romania. Springer.
Wike, R., Poushter, J., Silver, L., Devlin, K., Fetterolf, J., Castillo, A., & Huang, C. (2019). European public opinion three decades after the fall of communism. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2019/10/15/european-public-opinion-three-decades-after-the-fall-of-communism/
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
By submitting a manuscript to JECS, authors agree to transfer without charge the following rights to JECS upon acceptance of the manuscript: first worldwide publication rights and the right for JECS to grant permissions as JECS editors judge appropriate for the redistribution of the article, its abstract, and its metadata in professional indexing and reference services. Any revenues from such redistribution are used solely to support the continued publication and distribution of articles.