Cultural Pluralism and Social Connectedness as Predictors of Immigrant Students’ Social Wellbeing and Achievements

Abstract views: 695 / PDF downloads: 311


  • Abu Bakar HM Instittut Agama Islam Negeri Palangka Raya



cultural pluralism, perceived discrimination, social connectedness, social wellbeing, students’ achievement.


Based on the utmost importance of respecting cultural differences to foster learning among immigrant students from diverse cultures and grounded in Social Psychology Theory, this study investigates the impact of cultural pluralism and social connectedness on immigrant students’ achievement through social wellbeing. Moreover, the contingent impact of perceived discrimination in decreasing the positive influence of students’ social wellbeing has been assessed. This study advances the body of literature regarding cultural diversity as well as the importance of cultural pluralism and social connectedness in promoting social wellbeing to enhance the achievements of immigrant students. Applying a time-lagged survey methodology, data were collected from the 323 immigrant students from the universities located at Kalimantan Island of Indonesia. Data were analyzed using SmartPLS software. The results revealed the positive impact of cultural pluralism and social connectedness on immigrant students’ social wellbeing leading to high achievements. Results also showed that the positive influence of immigrant students’ social wellbeing on their achievements decreases in the presence of perceived discrimination as a moderator.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Abu Bakar HM, Instittut Agama Islam Negeri Palangka Raya

Insitut Agama Islam Negeri Palangka Raya, Palangka Raya, Indonesia.


Aliyyah, R. R., Rachmadtullah, R., Samsudin, A., Syaodih, E., Nurtanto, M., & Tambunan, A. R. S. (2020). The perceptions of primary school teachers of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic period: A case study in Indonesia. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 7(2), 90-109. DOI:

Banks, J. A. (2015). Cultural diversity and education: Foundations, curriculum, and teaching. Routledge.

Bardach, L., Yanagida, T., Schober, B., & Lüftenegger, M. (2019). Students’ and teachers’ perceptions of goal structures–Will they ever converge? Exploring changes in student-teacher agreement and reciprocal relations to self-concept and achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 59, Article 101799. j.cedpsych.2019.101799 DOI:

Bender, M., van Osch, Y., Sleegers, W., & Ye, M. (2019). Social support benefits psychological adjustment of international students: Evidence from a meta-analysis. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 50(7), 827-847. 10.1177/0022022119861151 DOI:

Benita, M. S. (2021). Are the student migrants satisfied with life? Effect of acculturative stress and perceived discrimination. International Journal of Education Economics and Development, 12(1), 79-96. DOI:

Binfet, J.-T. (2017). The effects of group-administered canine therapy on university students’ wellbeing: A randomized controlled trial. Anthrozoös, 30(3), 397-414. DOI:

Brenick, A., Schachner, M. K., & Jugert, P. (2018). Help or hindrance? Minority versus majority cross-ethnic friendships altering discrimination experiences. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 59, 26-35. DOI:

Celeste, L., Baysu, G., Phalet, K., Meeussen, L., & Kende, J. (2019). Can school diversity policies reduce belonging and achievement gaps between minority and majority youth? Multiculturalism, colorblindness, and assimilationism assessed. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 45(11), 1603-1618. 0146167219838577 DOI:

Chen, A. S.-y., Lin, G.-h., & Yan, H.-w. (2021). Staying connected: Effects of social connectedness, cultural intelligence, and socioeconomic status on overseas students’ life satisfaction. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 83, 151-162. DOI:

Cojuharenco, I., Cornelissen, G., & Karelaia, N. (2016). Yes, I can: Feeling connected to others increases perceived effectiveness and socially responsible behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 48, 75-86. j.jenvp.2016.09.002 DOI:

Dalle, J., & Ariffin, A. M. (2018). The impact of technologies in teaching interaction design. Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems, 10(4 Special Issue), 1779–1783.

Dalle, J., Hairudinor, H., Baharuddin, B., Sriadhi, & Chandra, T. (2020). Does it unrest alter the effect of risk-taking attitude on the organization’s performance? Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues, 9(5), 158–172. DOI:

Dalle, J., Hastuti, D., & Akmal, F. (2021). Evaluation of Peatland Suitability for Rice Cultivation using Matching Method. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 30(3), 2041–2047. DOI:

Dalle, J., Siyoto, S., Astika, N. D., Negara, D. J., Chandra, T., & Anam, K. (2020). Moderating role of IT adoption and mechanism of dynamic capabilities on Indonesian pharmaceutical firms performance. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11(9), 982–992.

Dengechi, B., Worku, N., & Mikre, F. (2021). Comparing the psychological wellbeing of the Manjo ethnic minority with the non-Manjo ethnic group in Kaffa Zone, Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 8(2), 21-38. doI:10.29333/ejecs/591 DOI:

Diener, E., & Scollon, C. (2003, October 23-25). Subjective wellbeing is desirable, but not the summum bonum. [Paper presentation]. University of Minnesota Interdisciplinary Workshop on Well-Being, Minneapolis.

Filippello, P., Buzzai, C., Costa, S., Orecchio, S., & Sorrenti, L. (2020). Teaching style and academic achievement: The mediating role of learned helplessness and mastery orientation. Psychology in the Schools, 57(1), 5-16. DOI:

Guerra, R., Rodrigues, R. B., Aguiar, C., Carmona, M., Alexandre, J., & Lopes, R. C. (2019). School achievement and wellbeing of immigrant children: The role of acculturation orientations and perceived discrimination. Journal of School Psychology, 75, 104-118. DOI:

Hachfeld, A., Hahn, A., Schroeder, S., Anders, Y., Stanat, P., & Kunter, M. (2011). Assessing teachers’ multicultural and egalitarian beliefs: The teacher cultural beliefs scale. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(6), 986-996. j.tate.2011.04.006 DOI:

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115-135. DOI:

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. In R. R. Sinkovics & P.N. Ghauri (Eds.), Advances in mnternational marketing, 20 (pp. 277–319). Emerald Publishing. DOI:

Hutabarat, A. (2020). Indonesian political policy in overcoming illegal immigrant problems in Indonesia. International Journal on Social Science, Economics and Art, 10(2), 96-103.

Hysa, E. (2020). Impact of cultural diversity on Western Balkan countries’ performance. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 7(1), 20-40. DOI:

Karyanta, N. A. (2021). Measuring acculturative stress and general self-rated health of internal migrant students in Indonesia: Considering Social Identity Theory. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Psychological Studies (ICPSYCHE 2020) (pp. 60-67). Atlantis Press. DOI:

Keyes, C. L. (2006). Subjective wellbeing in mental health and human development research worldwide: An introduction. Social Indicators Research, 77(1), 1-10. DOI:

Keyes, C. L. M. (1998). Social wellbeing. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61(2), 121-140. DOI:

Kim, Y., Mok, S. Y., & Seidel, T. (2020). Parental influences on immigrant students' achievement-related motivation and achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 30, Article 100327. DOI:

Lee, R. M., & Robbins, S. B. (1995). Measuring belongingness: The social connectedness and the social assurance scales. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42(2), 232-241. DOI:

Li, C. (2020). A positive psychology perspective on Chinese EFL students’ trait emotional intelligence, foreign language enjoyment and EFL learning achievement. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 41(3), 246-263. 01434632.2019.1614187 DOI:

Liu, M. (2019). Predicting effects of demographic, linguistic and psychological variables on university international students’ intercultural communication sensitivity. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 6(3), 123-133. doi:10.29333/ejecs/277 DOI:

Locks, A. M., Hurtado, S., Bowman, N. A., & Oseguera, L. (2008). Extending notions of campus climate and diversity to students' transition to college. The Review of Higher Education, 31(3), 257-285. doi:10.1353/rhe.2008.0011 DOI:

López, V., Oyanedel, J. C., Bilbao, M., Torres, J., Oyarzún, D., Morales, M., Ascorra, P., & Carrasco, C. (2017). School achievement and performance in Chilean high schools: the mediating role of subjective wellbeing in school-related evaluations. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1189. DOI:

Luczak, C., & Kalbag, A. (2018). The appropriateness and effectiveness of cross-aged peer mentoring in the learning environment. International Journal of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, 4(2), 76-84. DOI:

Luhmann, M., Hofmann, W., Eid, M., & Lucas, R. E. (2012). Subjective wellbeing and adaptation to life events: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(3), 592-615. DOI:

Mansoor, M. (2021a). Citizens' trust in government as a function of good governance and government agency's provision of quality information on social media during COVID-19. Government Information Quarterly, 101597. DOI:

Mansoor, M. (2021b). An interaction effect of perceived government response on COVID-19 and government agency’s use of ICT in building trust among citizens of Pakistan. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy. Advance online publication. DOI:

Mansoor, M., & Noor, U. (2019). Determinants of green purchase intentions: Positive word of mouth as moderator. Journal of Business & Economics, 11(2), 143-160.

Manuela, S., & Sibley, C. G. (2015). The Pacific Identity and Wellbeing Scale-Revised (PIWBS-R). Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 21(1), 146-155. DOI:

Mason, A. (2016). Justice, feasibility, and ideal theory: A pluralist approach. Social Philosophy and Policy, 33(1-2), 32-54. doi:10.1017/S0265052516000388 DOI:

Motti-Stefanidi, F. (2018). Resilience among immigrant youth: The role of culture, development and acculturation. Developmental Review, 50(Part A), 99-109. DOI:

Nedal, O. A., & Alcoriza, M. G. O. (2018). Challenges in education: The untold story of students in Lanao Kapanglao, Glan, Sarangani province. Journal of Advances in Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(3), 118-126. 10.20474/jahss-4.3.1 DOI:

Newton, D. C., LaMontagne, A., & Tomyn, A. (2021). Exploring the challenges and opportunities for improving the health and wellbeing of international students: Perspectives of professional staff at an Australian University. JANZSSA-Journal of the Australian and New Zealand Student Services Association, 29(1), 74-92. DOI:

Noor, U., Mansoor, M., & Rabbani, S. (2021). Brand hate and retaliation in Muslim consumers: does offensive advertising matter? Journal of Islamic Marketing. Advance online publication. DOI:

Oczlon, S., Bardach, L., & Lüftenegger, M. (2021). Immigrant adolescents’ perceptions of cultural pluralism climate: Relations to self‐esteem, academic self‐concept, achievement, and discrimination. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development. Advance online publication. DOI:

Oweis, T. I. (2018). Effects of using a blended learning method on students’ achievement and motivation to learn English in Jordan: A pilot case study. Education Research International, 2018, Article 7425924. DOI:

Papadopoulou, V., Theodosiadou, K., & Palaiologou, N. (2020). Teachers' personal theories of teaching: Managing cultural diversity in mainstream public primary schools in Greece. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 7(2), 195-211. DOI:

Sadeghi, S., Sajjadi, S. N., Nooshabadi, H. R., & Farahani, M. J. (2018). Social-cultural barriers of Muslim women athletes: Case study of professional female athletes in Iran. Journal of Management Practices, Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(1), 6-10. DOI:

Samad, S., Nilashi, M., & Ibrahim, O. (2019). The impact of social networking sites on students’ social wellbeing and academic performance. Education and Information Technologies, 24(3), 2081-2094. DOI:

Sawatsuk, B., Darmawijaya, I. G., Ratchusanti, S., & Phaokrueng, A. (2018). Factors determining the sustainable success of community-based tourism: Evidence of good corporate governance of Mae Kam Pong Homestay, Thailand. International Journal of Business and Economic Affairs, 3(1), 13-20. DOI:

Schachner, M. K., Noack, P., Van de Vijver, F. J., & Eckstein, K. (2016). Cultural diversity climate and psychological adjustment at school—Equality and inclusion versus cultural pluralism. Child Development, 87(4), 1175-1191. cdev.12536 DOI:

Schachner, M. K., Schwarzenthal, M., Van De Vijver, F. J., & Noack, P. (2019). How all students can belong and achieve: Effects of the cultural diversity climate amongst students of immigrant and nonimmigrant background in Germany. Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(4), 703-716. DOI:

Schotte, K., Stanat, P., & Edele, A. (2018). Is integration always most adaptive? The role of cultural identity in academic achievement and in psychological adaptation of immigrant students in Germany. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(1), 16-37. DOI:

Smith, L. V., Wang, M.-T., & Hill, D. J. (2020). Black youths' perceptions of school cultural pluralism, school climate and the mediating role of racial identity. Journal of School Psychology, 83, 50-65. DOI:

Stone, S., & Logan, A. (2018). Exploring students’ use of the social networking tite WhatsApp to foster connectedness in the online learning experience. Irish Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning Ireland, 3(1), 42-55. DOI:

Sueca, I. N., Sumertha, I. N., & Winaja, I. W. (2021). A time-lag study on perceived threat of COVID-19 in Hindu religious community: Moderating role of Hindu religious coping. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 8(3), 217-243. DOI:

Sun, X., Hall, G. C. N., DeGarmo, D. S., Chain, J., & Fong, M. C. (2021). A longitudinal investigation of discrimination and mental health in Chinese international students: The role of social connectedness. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 52(1), 61-77. DOI:

Wang, M.-T., Degol, J. L., Amemiya, J., Parr, A., & Guo, J. (2020). Classroom climate and children’s academic and psychological wellbeing: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Developmental Review, 57, Article 100912. j.dr.2020.100912 DOI:

Wasike, C. N. (2017). Financial regulation as moderating influence of corporate governance, institutional quality, human capital and firm size on financial institutions performance in Kenya. Journal of Administrative and Business Studies, 3(6), 292-304. Available at SSRN: DOI:

Wei, M., Liang, Y.-S., Du, Y., Botello, R., & Li, C.-I. (2015). Moderating effects of perceived language discrimination on mental health outcomes among Chinese international students. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 6(3), 213-222. DOI:

Wu, B., & Ida, A. K. (2018). Ethnic diversity, religion, and opinions toward legalizing abortion: The case of Asian Americans. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 5(1), 94-109. DOI:

Yamamori, K. (2019). Classroom practices of low-cost STEM education using scratch. Journal of Advanced Research in Social Sciences and Humanities Volume, 4(6), 192-198. DOI:

Yue, Y., & Le, Q. (2012). International students' social engagement and social wellbeing in an Australian regional area. International Journal of Health, Wellness & Society, 2(3). DOI:

Zhang, Y., Zhao, W., Jiang, T., Chen, X., & Luo, Y. (2021). Examining the relationship between social class and wellbeing in Chinese adolescents: The mediating role of basic psychological needs. Youth & Society. Advance online publication. DOI:




How to Cite

HM, A. B. (2021). Cultural Pluralism and Social Connectedness as Predictors of Immigrant Students’ Social Wellbeing and Achievements. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 8(4), 154–170.



Original Manuscript
Received 2021-07-28
Accepted 2021-08-19
Published 2021-08-25