Straddling the Wall: Comparative Framing of Trump’s Border Wall in U.S. & Mexican Newspapers

Nathian Shae Rodriguez, Mariana De Maio

Abstract


Donald Trump’s most notorious promise before and during his presidency was the construction of a border wall. The issues surrounding new construction of Donald Trump’s border wall (both physically and rhetorically) are complex and the outcomes are difficult to predict. The study examines how Trump’s border wall was framed in online newspaper publications of the international border cities of San Diego, California and Tijuana, Mexico, and in El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Specifically, the study employs a comparative framing analysis using the John Agnew’s (2008) theoretical lens of borders as equivocal spaces of dwelling that bring about both benefit and harm — the standard of a decent life. The analysis revealed the frames of: Mexico will pay for the wall; DACA as leverage; political contention; protest and dissention; environmental impact; immigration package; separation and divisiveness; safety and security; and economic consequences. A majority of the content published in the U.S. was produced locally, however, most of the content published in Mexico was from news agencies, except for the opinion pieces that were locally produced for outlets on both side of the border.


Keywords


border, border wall, framing, global journalism, Mexico, Trump.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aalberg, T., Papathanassopoulos, S., Soroka, S., Curran, J., Hayashi, K., Iyengar, S., Jones, P. K., Mazzoleni, G., Rojas, H., Rowe, D., & Tiffen, R. (2013). International TV news, foreign affairs interest and public knowledge: A comparative study of foreign news coverage and public opinion in 11 countries. Journalism Studies, 14(3), 387–406. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2013.765636

About Us. (n.d.). El Paso Times. Retrieved July 12, 2021, from https://static.elpasotimes.com/aboutus/

AFP. (2017, September 21). Demanda California a Donald Trump por construcción del muro. El Sol de Tijuana. https://www.elsoldetijuana.com.mx/mundo/demanda-california-a-donald-trump-por-construccion-del-muro

Agnew, J. (2008). Borders on the mind: Re-framing border thinking. Ethics & Global Politics, 1(4), 175–191. https://doi.org/10.3402/egp.v1i4.1892

Akhavan-Majid, R., & Ramaprasad, J. (1998). Framing and ideology: A comparative analysis of U.S. and Chinese newspaper coverage of the Fourth United Nations Conference on Women the NGO Forum. Mass Communication & Society, 1(3–4), 131–152. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.1998.9677853

Andreas, P. (2009). Border games: Policing the U.S.-Mexico divide. Cornell University Press.

Antony, M. G., & Thomas, R. J. (2017). “Stop sending your kids across our border:” Discursively constructing the unaccompanied youth migrant. Journal of International & Intercultural Communication, 10(1), 4–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/17513057.2016.1214282

Anzaldúa, G. (2012). Borderlands: The new Mestiza. Aunt Lute Books.

Associated Press. (2017a, September 12). Desliga casa blanca muro y DACA. El Diario de Juarez. http://diario.mx/Estados_Unidos/2017-09-12_1c790f05/desliga-casa-blanca-muro-y-daca-/

Associated Press. (2017b, September 27). Demanda California al gobierno de Trump por muro fronterizo. El Diario de Juárez. http://diario.mx/Estados_Unidos/2017-09-20_98d8a775/demanda-california-al-gobierno-de-trump-por-muro-fronterizo/

Associated Press. (2017c, October 8). Chantajea Trump con DACA a senado para aprobar muro. El Diario de Juárez. http://diario.mx/Estados_Unidos/2017-10-08_2972684e/chantajea-trump-con-daca-a-senado-para-aprobar-muro/

Bauder, D. (2017, October 9). U-T print circulation continues downward spiral | San Diego Reader. San Diego Reader. https://www.sandiegoreader.com/news/2017/oct/09/ticker-u-t-print-circulation-downward-spira/

Berglez, P. (2008). What is global journalism? Theoretical and empirical conceptualizations. Journalism Studies, 9(6), 845–858. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616700802337727

Bixby, K. (2017, September 26). Border wall also a threat to wildlife: Readers. El Paso Times. http://www.elpasotimes.com/story/opinion/2017/09/26/border-wall-also-threat-wildlife-readers/702516001/

Borunda, D. (2017a, September 1). 1,000 march in support of young immigrants, against sanctuary cities law. El Paso Times. http://www.elpasotimes.com/story/news/immigration/2017/09/01/1-000-march-support-young-immigrants-against-sanctuary-cities-law/626201001/

Borunda, D. (2017b, September 1). Sen. Ted Cruz focusses on NAFTA, border wall, Obamacare in El Paso visit. El Paso Times. http://www.elpasotimes.com/story/ news/politics/2017/08/24/sen-ted-cruz-targets-obamacare-during-el-paso-visit/597749001/

Brito, J. (2017, October 9). A wall won’t fix this country’s real drug issue. El Paso Times. http://www.elpasotimes.com/story/opinion/2017/10/09/wall-wont-fix-countrys-real-drug-issue-readers/725305001/

Brown, W. (2010). Walled states, waning sovereignty. Zone Books.

Caballero, J. (2017, September 1). Muro no contendrá el cruce migrante. El Sol de Tijuana. https://www.elsoldetijuana.com.mx/local/muro-no-contendra-el-cruce-migrante

Camaj, L. (2010). Media framing through stages of a political discourse: International news agencies’ coverage of Kosovo’s status negotiations. International Communication Gazette, 72(7), 635–653. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048510378147

Cheng, Z., Caverlee, J., & Lee, K. (2010). You are where you tweet: A content-based approach to geo-locating twitter users. Proceedings of the 19th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management - CIKM ’10, 759. https://doi.org/10.1145/1871437.1871535

Chong, D., & Druckman, J. N. (2007). Framing theory. Annual Review of Political Science, 10(1), 103–126. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.polisci.10.072805.103054

Collins, E. (2017, September 1). Nevada Rep. Mark Amodei tries to be a “pro-immigration republican” in the era of Trump. El Paso Times. https://www.elpasotimes.com/story/news/politics/2017/09/01/nevada-rep-mark-amodei-pro-immigration-republican-trump-era/620298001/

Cooper, M., & Kuhn, P. (2020). Behavioral job search. Handbook of Labor, Human Resources and Population Economics, 83(3), 195-216. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048520913230

Coronado, I., & Mumme, S. (2020). Environmental governance at the US-Mexico Border. In T. Payan & P. L. Cruz (Eds.), Binational commons: Institutional development and governance on the US-Mexico Border (pp. 159-190). University of Arizona Press.

Cottle, S. (2009). Global crisis reporting. McGraw-Hill Companies, Incorporated.

Curran, J., Esser, F., Hallin, D. C., Hayashi, K., & Lee, C.-C. (2017). International news and global integration: A five-nation reappraisal. Journalism Studies, 18(2), 118–134. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2015.1050056

Demirjian, K. (2017, September 3). Trump surrogates say ending DACA could be good for U.S. workers. The San Diego Union Tribune. https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/us-politics/ct-trump-ending-daca-20170903-story.html

Di Renzo, F. (2017). Exploring online news: What elpais.com ’s and eldiario.es ’s narratives tell about the migrant crossings of the Morocco–Spain border. Journalism, 21(7), 974–989. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884917708866

Duan, R., & Takahashi, B. (2017). The two-way flow of news: A comparative study of American and Chinese newspaper coverage of Beijing’s air pollution. International Communication Gazette, 79(1), 83–107. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048516656303

Elcioglu, E. F. (2017). The state effect: Theorizing immigration politics in Arizona. Social Problems, 64(2), 239–255. https://doi.org/10.1093/socpro/spw060

Elena, M. (2016). Framing international media in the face of social movements: CNN and Al-Jazeera English in the fall of Morsi. Communication & Society, 29(3), 119–130. https://doi.org/10.15581/003.29.3.119-130

Entman, R. (1993). Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01304.x

Entman, R. (2004). Projections of power: Framing news, public opinion, and U.S. foreign policy. University of Chicago Press.

Entman, R. (2007). Framing bias: Media in the distribution of power. Journal of Communication, 57(1), 163–173. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00336.x

Entman, R., Matthes, J., & Pellicano, L. (2009). Nature, sources, and effects of news framing. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.), The handbook of journalism studies. (pp 195-210) Routledge.

Febriyanti, I. (2017). Trump’s border wall: The flurry loss of immigrants’ rights and reshaping immigration law. Jurnal Komunikasi Hukum (JKH), 3(1), 96–104. https://doi.org/10.23887/jkh.v3i1.9245

Fernandes, J., & Shumow, M. (2016). Framing politics in transnational communities: Spanish-language immigrant media and election coverage in South Florida. Journalism, 17(8), 961–978. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884914542743

Finnegan, M. (2016, June 2). “It’s going to be a big, fat, beautiful wall!”: Trump’s words make his California climb an even steeper trek. Los Angeles Times. https://www.latimes.com/politics/la-na-pol-trump-california-campaign-20160602-snap-story.html

Flores, R. (2017, September 4). Opinion: Better ways to spend money than a border wall. The San Diego Union Tribune. https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/opinion/letters-to-the-editor/sd-broder-wall-hurricane-houston-utak-letters-20170901-story.html

Frederking, L. (2012). A comparative study of framing immigration policy after 11 September 2001. Policy Studies, 33(4), 283–296. https://doi.org/10.1080/01442872.2012.694184

Fryberg, S. A., Stephens, N. M., Covarrubias, R., Markus, H. R., Carter, E. D., Laiduc, G. A., & Salido, A. J. (2012). How the media frames the immigration debate: The critical role of location and politics: Immigration debate (SB 1070). Analyses of Social Issues & Public Policy, 12(1), 96–112. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-2415.2011.01259.x

Gobierno de México. (2021). Padrón nacional de medios impresos—Consulta de medios. Gobierno de México. https://pnmi.segob.gob.mx/reporte

Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Harper & Row.

Gómez, G. (2017, September 28). Why Trump’s wall is a bad deal for San Diego. The San Diego Union Tribune. http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/opinion/ commentary/sd-utbg-trump-wall-border-economy-20170928-story.html

Gravelle, T. B. (2018). Politics, time, space, and attitudes toward US–Mexico border security. Political Geography, 65, 107–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2018.05.012

Gross, K., & D’Ambrosio, L. (2004). Framing emotional response. Political Psychology, 25(1), 1–29. JSTOR.

Harlow, S., & Johnson, T. J. (2011). Overthrowing the protest paradigm? How the New York Times, Global Voices and Twitter covered the Egyptian revolution. International Journal of Communication, 5, 1359–1374.

Hastings, M. (2017, October 12). Demanda casa blanca precio muy alto por amparo a dreamers. El Diario de Juárez. http://diario.mx/Opinion_El_Paso/2017-10-11_eee3c532/demanda-casa-blanca-precio-muy-alto-por-amparo-a-dreamers/

Hernández, J. (2017, September 30). Autoridades en Tijuana blindan zonas cercanas a construcción del muro. El Sol de Tijuana. https://www.elsoldetijuana.com.mx/sociedad/autoridades-en-tijuana-blindan-zonas-cercanas-a-construccion-del-muro

Heyman, J., & Ackleson, J. (2010). United States border security after 9/11. In J. A. Winterdyk & K. W. Sundberg (Eds.), Border security in the Al-Qaeda era (pp. 37–76). CRC Press.

Hinton, K. A. (2017). Beginning from the border. Educational Borderlands: A Bilingual Journal, 1, 3–14.

Hove, T., Paek, H.-J., Isaacson, T., & Cole, R. T. (2013). Newspaper portrayals of child abuse: frequency of coverage and frames of the issue. Mass Communication & Society, 16(1), 89–108. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2011.632105

Iyengar, S. (1991). Is anyone responsible? How television frames political issues. The University of Chicago Press. https://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/I/bo3684515.html

Jang, W. Y. (2013). News as propaganda: A comparative analysis of US and Korean press coverage of the Six-Party Talks, 2003–2007. International Communication Gazette, 75(2), 188–204. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048512465555

Jenkins, R. (2014). Social identity. Routledge.

Kaiser, J., & Kleinen-von Königslöw, K. (2017). The framing of the Euro crisis in German and Spanish online news media between 2010 and 2014: Does a common European public discourse emerge?: The framing of the Euro crisis. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 55(4), 798–814. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcms.12515

Keck, M., & Clua-Losada, M. (2021). Trump’s authoritarian neoliberal governance and the US-Mexican border. Policy Studies, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/01442872.2021.1959541

Konieczna, M., Mattis, K., Tsai, J.-Y., Liang, X., & Dunwoody, S. (2014). Global journalism in decision-making moments: A case study of Canadian and American television coverage of the 2009 United Nations Framework Convention on climate change in Copenhagen. Environmental Communication, 8(4), 489–507. https://doi.org/10.1080/17524032.2014.909509

Lawlor, A. (2015). Local and national accounts of immigration framing in a cross-national perspective. Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies, 41(6), 918–941. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2014.1001625

Lindlof, T. R., & Taylor, B. C. (2002). Qualitative communication research methods. SAGE.

Liobikienė, G., Grincevičienė, Š., & Bernatonienė, J. (2017). Environmentally friendly behaviour and green purchase in Austria and Lithuania. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 3789–3797. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.10.084

Löffelholz, M., & Weaver, D. (2008). Global journalism research. Summing up and looking ahead. In M. Löffelholz, D. Weaver, & A. Schwarz (Eds.), Global journalism research: Theories, methods, findings, future. (pp 285-294). Wiley.

López, E. (2017, Ocober). México alista debate para frenar el muro. El Sol de Tijuana. https://www.elsoldetijuana.com.mx/local/mexico-alista-debate-para-frenar-el-muro

Lück, J., Wessler, H., Wozniak, A., & Lycarião, D. (2018). Counterbalancing global media frames with nationally colored narratives: A comparative study of news narratives and news framing in the climate change coverage of five countries. Journalism, 19(12), 1635–1656. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884916680372

Marchionni, D. M. (2012). International human trafficking: An agenda-building analysis of the US and British press. International Communication Gazette, 74(2), 145–158. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048511432600

Mascaro, L. (2017, September 5). Speaker Ryan has ‘hope’ Congress can protect ‘Dreamers,’ but few other Republicans join Democratic pledge to fix DACA. The San Diego Union Tribune. http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/us-politics/la-dreamers-decision-live-updates-speaker-ryan-has-hope-congress-can-1504629054-htmlstory.html

McDonnell, P. (2017a, August 31). Mexico signals tougher stance on NAFTA, may pull out of talks if Trump moves to scrap deal. The San Diego Union Tribune. http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/nation-world/la-fg-mexico-nafta-20170831-story.html

McDonnell, P. (2017b, September 2). Mexican president says country will not compromise its “dignity” when dealing with the U.S. The San Diego Union Tribune. https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/nation-world/la-fg-mexico-pena-nieto-20170902-story.html

McDonnell, P. (2017c, September 4). Where the border fence meets the sea, a strange beach scene contrasting the U.S. and Mexico. The San Diego Union Tribune. http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/nation-world/ct-mexico-tijuana-beach--20170904-story.html

McDonnell, P. (2017d, September 5). Mexico greets Trump’s DACA decision with ‘profound regret.’ The San Diego Union Tribune. http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/us-politics/la-dreamers-decision-live-updates-mexico-greets-trump-s-daca-decision-1504635249-htmlstory.html

McGahern, U. (2017). Protesting at the crossroads: Framing ‘in-between places’ in spatial analyses of contention. Political Geography, 59, 92–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2017.04.006

Media Bias / Fact Check. (2020a, August 8). San Diego Union Tribune. https://mediabiasfactcheck.com/san-diego-union-tribune/

Media Bias / Fact Check. (2020b, September 23). El Paso Times. https://mediabiasfactcheck.com/el-paso-times/

Mientras Pence elogia a hispanos, Trump condiciona su muro por solución al DACA. (2017, October 11). El Sol de Tijuana. https://www.elsoldetijuana.com.mx/mundo/mientras-pence-elogia-a-hispanos-trump-condiciona-su-muro-por-solucion-al-daca

Mekelburg, M. (2017a, October 4). Bill would ban eminent domain for border wall. El Paso Times. http://www.elpasotimes.com/story/news/immigration/2017/10/04/bill-would-ban-eminent-domain-border-wall/731314001/

Mekelburg, M. (2017b, October 10). Texas democrats in Congress balk at Trump’s immigration plan. El Paso Times. http://www.elpasotimes.com/story/news/immigration/2017/10/10/texas-democrats-congress-balk-trumps-immigration-plan/750864001/

Mogos, A., Vincze, H. O., & Meza, R. M. (2021). Domesticating foreign news in Romanian news outlets: Global issues in local frames. Romanian Journal of Sociological Studies, 1(1), 5-17. https://journalofsociology.ro/

Moran, G. (2017, October 3). As wall prototypes go up, DHS report says sneaking across southwest border now harder than ever before. The San Diego Union Tribune. http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/border-baja-california/sd-me-border-report-20171002-story.html

Moran, G., & Davis, K. (2017, September 26). Construction begins on Trump’s border wall prototypes in Otay Mesa. The San Diego Union Tribune. http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/border-baja-california/sd-me-border-begins-20170926-story.html

Morrissey, K. (2017, September 1). Construction set to begin on prototypes for Trump’s U.S.-Mexico border wall. The San Diego Union Tribune. http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/california/la-me-border-wall-20170901-story.html

Muñiz, C. (2011). Encuadres noticiosos sobre migración en la prensa digital mexicana. Un análisis de contenido exploratorio desde la teoría del framing. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 55, 213–239.

Nelson, S. (2011). The immigrant experience: Mexico and Central America to the United States. California Polytechnic State University.

Nelson, T., & Kinder, D. (1996). Issue frames and group-centrism in American public opinion. The Journal of Politics, 58(4), 1055–1078. JSTOR. https://doi.org/10.2307/2960149

Nelson, T., Clawson, R., & Oxley, Z. (1997a). Media framing of a civil liberties conflict and its effect on tolerance. American Political Science Review, 91(3), 567–583. https://doi.org/10.2307/2952075

Nelson, T., Oxley, Z., & Clawson, R. (1997b). Toward a psychology of framing effects. Political Behavior, 19(3), 221–246.

Nevins, J. (2001). Operation Gatekeeper: The rise of the “illegal alien” and the making of the U.S.-Mexico boundary. Routledge.

Notimex. (2017, September 1). Beso del meñique, símbolo de reencuentro. El Sol de Tijuana. https://www.elsoldetijuana.com.mx/dos-mil-millas/beso-del-menique-simbolo-de-reencuentro

Olive, A., & Delshad, A. B. (2017). Fracking and framing: A comparative analysis of media coverage of hydraulic fracturing in Canadian and US newspapers. Environmental Communication, 11(6), 784–799. https://doi.org/10.1080/17524032.2016.1275734

Paletta, D., Debonis, M., & O’Keefe, E. (2017, September 3). With brutal Sept. To-do list, GOP already clashing over Harvey relief, debt limit. The San Diego Union Tribune. https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/us-politics/ct-republicans-harvey-debt-limit-20170903-story.html

Pantti, M. (2013). Seeing and not seeing the Syrian crisis: New visibility and the visual framing of the Syrian conflict in seven newspapers and their online editions. JOMEC Journal, 0(4). https://doi.org/10.18573/j.2013.10259

Reese, S. D. (2008). Theorizing a globalized journalism. In M. Löffelholz, D. Weaver, & A. Schwarz (Eds.), Global journalism research: Theories, methods, findings, future (pp. 240–251). Wiley.

Reforma. (2017a, September 26). Alista EU colocación de prototipos de muro. El Diario de Juárez. http://diario.mx/Estados_Unidos/2017-09-26_f9fa7b04/alista-eu-colocacion-de-prototipos-de-muro-&ref=1/

Reforma. (2017b, September 26). Inicia construcción de prototipos de muro. El Diario de Juárez. http://diario.mx/Nacional/2017-09-26_01cf36ed/inicia-construccion-de-prototipos-de-muro-/

Reuters. (2017, October 8). Trump envía futura reforma migratoria: Pide más fondos para muro y prohíbe dreamers. El Sol de Tijuana. https://www.elsoldetijuana.com.mx/mundo/trump-presenta-decalogo-migratorio-pide-mas-fondos-para-muro-y-prohibe-ingreso-de-dreamers

Rivers, D. J., & Ross, A. S. (2020). Authority (de) legitimation in the border wall Twitter discourse of President Trump. Journal of Language & Politics, 19(5), 831-856. https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.19105.riv

Romero, L. A., & Zarrugh, A. (2017). Islamophobia and the making of Latinos/as into terrorist threats. Ethnic & Racial Studies, 41(12), 2235–2254. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2017.1349919

Rosas-Moreno, T. C., & Bachmann, I. (2012). Pakistani and U.S. press content on Benazir Bhutto’s assassination frame her dynasty, destiny, death and their secrets. 30.

Sarabia, H. (2020) Migrants, activists, and the Mexican State: Framing violence, rights, and solidarity along the U.S.-Mexico border. Citizenship Studies, 2(4), 512-529. https://doi.org/10.1080/13621025.2020.1755175

SBCC, S. B. C. C. (2021, July 11). Fatal encounters with CBP. Southern Border Communities Coalition. https://www.southernborder.org/deaths_by_border_patrol

Shehata, A., & Hopmann, D. N. (2012). Framing climate change: A study of US and Swedish press coverage of global warming. Journalism Studies, 13(2), 175–192. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2011.646396

Showley, R. (2017, August 31). Shut down the government if a border wall isn’t funded? EconoMeter panelists weigh in on Trump’s threat. - The San Diego Union-Tribune. The San Diego Union Tribune. https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/business/economy/sd-fi-econometer3sept-20170831-htmlstory.html

Stone, K. (2020, October 22). Daily U-T circulation drops to 88,000: Publisher calls outlet “healthy, profitable.” Times of San Diego. https://timesofsandiego.com/business/2020/10/21/daily-u-t-circulation-drops-to-88000-publisher-calls-outlet-healthy-profitable/

Trump da marcha atrás con paralizar gobierno si no financian muro. (2017, September 1). El Sol de Tijuana. https://www.elsoldetijuana.com.mx/mundo/trump-da-marcha-atras-con-paralizar-gobierno-si-no-financian-muro-2

Ulloa, J. (2017, October 5). California becomes ‘sanctuary state’ in rebuke of Trump immigration policy. The San Diego Union Tribune. http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/us-politics/la-pol-ca-brown-california-sanctuary-state-bill-20171005-story.html

Varjú, V., & Plaut, S. (2017). Media mirrors? Framing Hungarian Romani migration to Canada in Hungarian and Canadian press. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 40(7), 1096–1113. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2017.1266007

Vaughan-Williams, N. (2009). Front Matter. In Borderpolitics: The limits of sovereign power. Edinburgh University Press. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3366/j.ctt1r29sk.1

Vines, R. (2017, September 1). Send a loud message against Trump’s border wall. El Paso Times. https://www.elpasotimes.com/story/opinion/2017/09/01/fee-increases-city-pools-too-high/617682001/

Vultee, F. (2010). Securitization as a media frame: What happens when the media ‘speak security. In M. J. Trombetta & T. Balzacq (Eds.), Securitization theory: How security problems emerge and dissolve (pp. 77–93). Routledge.

Winkley, L., & Repard, P. (2017, September 5). Jury in Banda case deadlocks on hit and run, convicts on misdemeanors. The San Diego Union Tribune. http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/courts/sd-me-banda-verdict-20170905-story.html

Zaharopoulos, T. (2007). The news framing of the 2004 olympic games. Mass Communication & Society, 10(2), 235–249. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205430701265752

Zhang, X., & Hellmueller, L. (2017). Visual framing of the European refugee crisis in Der Spiegel and CNN International: Global journalism in news photographs. International Communication Gazette, 79(5), 483–510. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048516688134




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/775

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies  E-ISSN: 2149-1291

Copyright © Center for Ethnic and Cultural Studies (CECS) Publishing Inc.

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'ejecs.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.

SCImago Journal & Country Rank  EBSCO HostCrossRef DOI – EScience Press

upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1d/Gal... News & Views: Analyzing the DOAJ - Delta ThinkICI Journals Master Listerihplus hashtag on TwitterProQuest (@ProQuest) | Twitter