Synchronous Online Learning in Higher Education: Vietnamese University Students’ Perspectives

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  • Ngoc Tung Vu VNU University of Languages and International Studies, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Minh Hai Nguyen Tran Banking University Ho Chi Minh City



synchronous online learning, Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, Vietnamese students, higher education.


This quantitative study investigated Vietnamese higher education students’ engagement with synchronous online learning (SOL) during a heightened stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Theoretically, we employed Engeström’s (1987) Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) to guide our research theoretically and pedagogically, and to construct reliable methods of data collection instruments responsible for multiple quantifiable variables informed by previous literature and personal goals that best match students’ study and work objectives. Over our 6-month research, we examined 475 Vietnamese college students. Our research showed that when engaged in SOL, the higher education research participants had a positive learning experience, perceived growth, and received learning assistance, in response to our quantitative examination of exploratory factor analysis and our qualitative counterpart of theme-based analysis. In light of this study, it is our hope that, according to the quantitative data, our delivery of initial insights into Vietnamese higher education institutions can provoke institutional leadership and management boards to think more closely about how to advance teaching and learning quality.


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Author Biographies

Ngoc Tung Vu, VNU University of Languages and International Studies, Hanoi, Vietnam

Research Methodologies in Educational Research, Statistical Modelling, and Intercultural Communication in Higher Education

Minh Hai Nguyen Tran, Banking University Ho Chi Minh City

lie in Quality Assessment in Higher Education, Corporate Finance Management, Insurance, Pension Funds, Microfinance, FinTech, Finance & Banking products and services


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How to Cite

Vu, N. T., & Tran, M. H. N. (2022). Synchronous Online Learning in Higher Education: Vietnamese University Students’ Perspectives. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 9(1), 131–160.



Original Manuscript
Received 2021-09-29
Accepted 2022-01-23
Published 2022-02-25