Synchronous Online Learning in Higher Education: Vietnamese University Students’ Perspectives
Abstract views: 358 / PDF downloads: 107
Keywords:synchronous online learning, Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, Vietnamese students, higher education.
This quantitative study investigated Vietnamese higher education students’ engagement with synchronous online learning (SOL) during a heightened stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Theoretically, we employed Engeström’s (1987) Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) to guide our research theoretically and pedagogically, and to construct reliable methods of data collection instruments responsible for multiple quantifiable variables informed by previous literature and personal goals that best match students’ study and work objectives. Over our 6-month research, we examined 475 Vietnamese college students. Our research showed that when engaged in SOL, the higher education research participants had a positive learning experience, perceived growth, and received learning assistance, in response to our quantitative examination of exploratory factor analysis and our qualitative counterpart of theme-based analysis. In light of this study, it is our hope that, according to the quantitative data, our delivery of initial insights into Vietnamese higher education institutions can provoke institutional leadership and management boards to think more closely about how to advance teaching and learning quality.
Alam, G. M., & Parvin, M. (2021). Can online higher education be an active agent for change? Comparision of academic success and job-readiness before and during COVID-19. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 172, 1-10. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2021.121008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2021.121008
Almazova, N., Krylova, E., Rubtsova, A., & Odinokaya, M. (2020). Challenges and opportunities for Russian higher education amid COVID-19: Teachers’ perspectives. Education Sciences, 10(368), 1-11. http://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10120368 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10120368
Aristovnik, A., Kerzic, D., Ravselj, D. Tomazeviv, N., & Umek, L. (2020). Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on life of higher education students: A global perspective. Sustainability, 12, 1-34. http://doi.org/10.3390/su12208438 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208438
Artino, A. R. (2009). Think, feel, act: Motivational and emotional influences on military students’ online academic success. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 21, 146–166. http://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-009-9020-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-009-9020-9
Artino, A. R., & McCoach, D. B. (2008). Development and initial validation of the online learning value and self-efficacy scale. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 38, 279–303. http://doi.org.10.1177/1359105312439732 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2190/EC.38.3.c
Bahar, B., & Kursat, C. (2010). The dynamics of online communities in the activity theory framework. Educational Technology & Society, 13(4), 155-166.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). Academic Press. Reprinted in H. Friedman [Eds.], Encyclopedia of mental health. Academic Press, 1998.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The exercise of control. W. H. Freeman.
Baran, B., & Cagiltay, K. (2010). The dynamics of online communities in the activity theory framework. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 13(4), 155-166.
Bates, R., & Khasawneh, S. (2007). Self-efficacy and college students’ perceptions and use of online learning systems. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 175–191. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2004.04.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2004.04.004
Batiibwe, M. S. K. (2019). Using cultural historical activity theory to understand how emerging technologies can mediate teaching and learning in a mathematics classroom: A review of literature. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 14(12), 1-20. http://doi.org/10.1186/s41039-019-0110-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s41039-019-0110-7
Bennet, S., Harper, B., & Hedberg, J. (2002). Designing real life cases to support authentic design activities. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 18(1), 1–12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.1743
Bernard, R., Abrami, P., Lou, Y., Borokhovski, E., et al. (2004). How does distance education compare with classroom instruction? A meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Review of Educational Research, 74(3), 379–439. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543074003379
Bourdieu, P. (1986). Forms of capital. In J. G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory as research for the sociology of education (pp. 241-258). Greenwood Press.
Brown, S. W., Boyer, M. A., Mayall, H. J., Johnson, P. R., Meng, L., & Butler, M. J., Weir, K., Florea, N., Hernandez, M., & Reis, S. (2003). The global ed project: Gender differences in a problem-based learning environment of international negotiations. Instructional Science, 31, 255–276. http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024677708501. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024677708501
Carroll, J. M. (2002). Human–computer interaction in the new millennium. ACM Press.
Challis, D. (2002). Integrating the conceptual and practice worlds: a case study from architecture. In: HERDSA 2002: Quality conversations: Annual international conference of the higher education research and development society of Australasia, pp. 106–113.
Chang, C-S., Liu, E, Z-F., Sung, H-Y., Lin, C-H., Chen, N-S., & Cheng, S-S. (2014). Effects of online college student’s Internet self-efficacy on learning motivation and performance. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 51(4), 366-377, http://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2013.771429 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2013.771429
Chen, R. S., & Tsai, C. C. (2007). Gender differences in Taiwan university students’ attitudes toward web-based learning. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, 645–654. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2007.9974
Chiu, C. M., & Wang, E. T. (2008). Understanding web-based learning continuance intention: The role of subjective task value. Information & Management, 45, 194–201. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2008.02.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2008.02.003
Cicha, K., Rizun, M, Rutecka, P., & Strzelecki, A. (2021). COVID-19 and higher education: First-year students’ expectations toward distance learning. Sustainability, 13(4), 1-19. http://doi.org/10.3390/su13041889 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041889
Cliff, A., Walji, S., Mogliacci, R. J., Morris, N. & Ivancheva, M. (2020). Unbundling and higher education curriculum: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory view of process, Teaching in Higher Education. http://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2019.1711050 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2019.1711050
Creswell, J. W. (2003) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative & Mixed Method Approaches (2nd Ed.). Sage.
Dai, Y. (2019). Situating videoconferencing in a connected class toward intercultural knowledge development: A comparative reflection approach. The Internet and Higher Education, 41, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2018.11.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2018.11.001
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Plenum. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7
Dornye, Z. (2003). Attitudes, orientations, and motivations in language learning: Advances in theory, research and applications. Language Learning, 53(1), 3–32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.53222
Eccles, J., & Wigfield, A. (1995). In the mind of the actor: The structure of adolescents’ achievement task values and expectancy-related beliefs. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 215–225. http://doi.org/10.1177/0146167295213003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167295213003
Elfirdoussi, S. Lachgar, M., Kabaili, H., Rochdi, A., Goujdami, D., & Firdoussi, L. E. (2020). Assessing distance learning in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Education Research International, 1-13. http://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8890633. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8890633
Ell, F., & Major, K. (2019). Using activity theory to understand professional learning in a networked professional learning community. Teaching and Teacher Education 84, 106-117. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2019.05.010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2019.05.010
Elsalen, L., Al-Azzam, N., Jum’ah, A. A., Obeidat, N., Sindiani, A. M., & Kheirallah, K. A. (2020). Stress and behavioral changes with remote E-exams during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study among undergraduates of medial sciences. Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 60, 271-279. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2020.10.058 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2020.10.058
Engeström, Y. (1987). Learning by expanding: An activity-theoretical approach to developmental research. Helsinki: Orienta-Konsultit http://lchc.ucsd.edu/MCA/Paper/Engestrom/expanding/toc.htm. Accessed 4 June 2018.
Engeström, Y. (2001). Expansive learning at work: Toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization. Journal of Education and Work, 14(1), 133–156. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080020028747. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080020028747
Engeström, Y. (2007). Enriching the theory of expansive learning: Lessons from journeys toward configuration. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 14(2), 23–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/10749030701307689. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10749030701307689
Ergul, H. (2004). Relationship between student characteristics and academic achievement in distance education and application on students of Anadolu University. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 5(2). http://tojde.anadolu.edu.tr/tojde14/articles/ergul.htm
Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. SAGE Publications.
Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N.E. (2006). How to design and evaluate research in education. McGraw-Hill.
Garcia-Penalvo, F. J., Corell, A., Abella-Garcia, V., & Grande-de-Prado, M. (2020). Recommendations for mandatory online assessment in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic. In D. Burgos, A. Tlili, & A. Tabacco (Eds.), Radical solutions for education in a crisis context. Lecture notes in educational technology (pp. 85-98). Springer. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-7869-4_6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-7869-4_6
Gonzalez, T., de la Rubia, M. A., Hincz, K. P., Comas-Lopez, M., Subirats, L., Fort, S., & Sacha, G. M. (2020). Influence of COVID-19 confinement on students’ performance in higher education. PloS ONE, 15(10), 1-23. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0239490 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0239490
Guangul, F. M., Suhail, A. H., Khalit, M. I., & Khidhir, B. A. (2020). Challenges of remote assessment in higher education in the context of COVID-19: A case study of Middle East college. Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Accountability, 32, 519-535. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11092-020-09340-w DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11092-020-09340-w
Hair, J. F., W. C. Black, B. J. Babin, & R. E. Anderson. (2014). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed). Pearson.
Hettiarachchi, S., Damayanthi, B. W.R., Heenkenda, S., Dissanayake, D. M. S. L. B., Ranagalage, M., & Ananda, L. (2021). Student satisfaction with online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: A study at state universities in Sri Lanka. Sustainability, 13, 1-24. http://doi.org/10.3390/su132111749 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su132111749
Ho, N. T. T., Sivapalan, S., Pham, H H., Nguyen, L. T. M., Pham, A. T. V, & Dinh, H. V. (2020). Students’ adoption of e-learning in emergency situation: The case of a Vietnamese university during COVID-19. Interactive Technology and Smart Education, 18(2), 246-269. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/ITSE-08-2020-0164
Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T. & Bond, A. (2020). The Difference Between Emergency Remote Teaching and Online Learning. Academic Press.
Hrastinski, S. (2008). What is online learner participation? A literature review. Computers & Education, 51(4), 1755-1765. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2008.05.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2008.05.005
Kahu, E., Stephens, C., Leach, L., & Zepke, N. (2013). The engagement of mature distance students. Higher Education Research and Developments, 32(5), 791-804. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2013.777036 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2013.777036
Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39(1), 31-36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02291575
Kantor, R.J., Waddington, T., Osgood, R. E. (2020). Fostering the suspension of disbelief: the role of authenticity in goal-based scenarios. Interactive Learning Environment, 8(3), 211–227. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1076/1049-4820(200012)8:3;1-D;FT211
Le, L., Tran, H., & Hunger, A. (2013). Developing active collaborative e-learning framework for Vietnam’s higher education context. In S. Antipolis. (Ed.), The 12th European Conference on e-Learning (ECEL 2013) (pp. 240-249). Academic Press.
Leontyev, A. (1981). Problems of the development of the mind. Moscow, Russia: Progress.
Li, Z. (2021). Critical thinking cultivation in Chinese learning classé for international students dủing the COVID-10 pandemic. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 40, 1-8. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2021.100845 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2021.100845
Liang, T. C., & Tsai, C. C. (2008). Internet self-efficacy and preferences toward constructivist Internet-based learning environments: A study of pre-school teachers in Taiwan. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 11(1), 226-237.
Lim, D. H., Yoon, W., & Morris, M. L. (2006). Instructional and learner factors influencing learning outcomes with online learning environment. Academy of Human Resource Development International Conference (AHRD) (pp. 972–979). http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED492786.pdf
Marshall, L., Northcote, M., & Lenoy, M. (2001). Design influences in the creation of an online mathematics unit for indigenous adults. In Meeting at the crossroads. Short paper proceedings of the 18th annual conference of the Australian society for computers in learning in tertiary education, pp. 113–116.
McBrien, J. L., Jones, P. T., & Cheng, R. (2009). Virtual spaces: Employing a synchronous online classroom to facilitate student engagement in online learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(3). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v10i3.605 DOI: https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v10i3.605
McGhee, R. M. H. (2010). Asynchronous interaction, online technologies self-efficacy and self-regulated learning as predictors of academic achievement in an online class [Doctoral dissertation, Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College]. https://www.proquest.com/openview/1d7bb98a23bf4f3f520155b77bf6107a/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y
McMahon, M., & Oliver, R. (2001). Promoting self-regulated learning in an online environment. Ed-Media 2001 World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (pp. 1299–1305). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).
Mentz, E., & Beer, J. D. (2017). The affordances of cultural-historical activity theory as a research lens in studying education from a socio-economic perspective, Proceedings of teaching and Education Conferences 4907704, International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20472/TEC.2017.004.007
Mishra, L., Gupta, T., & Shree, A. (2020). Online teaching-learning in higher education during lockdown period of COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedro.2020.100012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedro.2020.100012
Nguyen, H. T. T. (2020). Learning to teach across the boundary: A cultural historical activity theory perspective on a university-school partnership in Vietnam. Teaching and Teacher Education, 96, 1-8. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2020.103183 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2020.103183
Nguyen, H. T., Warren, W., & Fehring, H. (2014). Factors affecting English language teaching and learning in higher education. English Language Teaching, 7(8), 94-105. http://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v7n8p94 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v7n8p94
Nguyen, Q. D. (2021). Potential consequences of COVID-19 pandemic on higher education system in Vietnam. International Journal of Innovation and Research in Educational Sciences, 8(4), 198-201.
Nguyen, X. A., Pho, D. H., Luong, D. H., & Cao, X. T. A. (2020). Vietnamese students’ acceptance of using video conferencing tools in distance learning in COVID-19 pandemic. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 22(3), 139-162. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.961828
Norusis, M. J. (2008). SPSS 16.0 guide to data analysis. Prentice Hall.
Oliver, R., & Herrington, J. (2000). Using situated learning as a design strategy for Web-based learning. In B. Abbey (Ed.), Instructional and cognitive impacts of web-based education (pp. 178–191). Idea Group Publishing. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-878289-59-9.ch011
Oxford, R., & Shearin, J. (1994). Language learning motivation: Expanding the theoretical framework. The Modern Language Journal, 78(1), 12–28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1994.tb02011.x
Paechter, M., Maier, M., & Macher, D. (2010). Students’ expectations of, and experiences in e-learning: Their relation to learning achievements and course satisfaction. Computers & Education, 54, 222–229. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2009.08.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2009.08.005
Peters, M.A., Wang, H., Ogunniran, M.O., Huang, Y., Green, B., Chunga, J. O., Quainoo, E. A., Ren, Z., Hollings, S., Mou, C., Khomera, S. W., Zhang, M., Zhou, S., Laimeche, A., Zheng, W., Xu, R., Jackson, L., & Hayes, S. (2020). China’s internationalized higher education during Covid-19: Collective student autoethnography. Postdigital Science and Education, 2, 968–988. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42438-020-00128-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42438-020-00128-1
Pham, H. H., & Ho, T. T. H. (2020). Vietnamese higher education during the post COVID-19 pandemic. Higher Education Research and Development, 39(7), 1327-1331. http://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2020.1823945 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2020.1823945
Pham, T. (2016). Student-centeredness: Exploring the culturally appropriate pedagogical space in Vietnamese higher education classrooms using activity theory. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 41(1), 1-21. http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/vol41/iss1/1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2016v41n1.1
Pintrich, P. R. (2004). A Conceptual Framework for Assessing Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in College Students. Educational Psychology Review, 16, 385-407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10648-004-0006-x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-004-0006-x
Pintrich, P. R., & Zusho, A. (2002). The development of academic self-regulation: The role of cognitive and motivational factors. In A. Wigfield & J. S. Eccle (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation (pp. 249–284). Academic Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012750053-9/50012-7
Prior, D. P., Mazanov, J., Meacheam, D., Heaslip, G., & Hanson, J. (2016). Attitude, digital literacy and self-efficacy: Flow-on effects for online learning behavior. Internet and Higher Education, 29, 91-97. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc,2016.01.001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2016.01.001
Que, L. T. M. (2021). Online teaching and learning in higher education during COVID-19 pandemic: Vietnamese students’ perspectives. IUP Journal of Information Technology, 17(3)), 23-48.
Raaper, R., & Brown, C. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic and the dissolution of the university campus: Implications for student support practice. Journal of Professional Capital and Community, 5(3/4), 343-349. http://doi.org/10.1108/JPCC-06-2020-0032 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JPCC-06-2020-0032
Schlosser, C. A., & Anderson, M. L. (1994). Distance education: Review of the literature. Association for Educational Communications and Technology.
Shen, D., Cho, M-H., Tsai, C-L., Marra, R. (2013). Unpacking online learning experiences: Online learning self-efficacy and learning satisfaction. Internet and Higher Education, 19, 10-17. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2013.04.001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2013.04.001
Singh, A., & Singh, L. B. (2017). E-Learning for employability skills: Students perspective. Procedia Computer Science, 12(2), 400–406. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2017.11.386 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2017.11.386
Sokal, L., Trudel, L. E., & Babb, J. (2020). Canadian teachers’ attitudes toward change, efficacy, and burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Research, 1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedro.2020.100016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedro.2020.100016
Solano-Campos, A., Hopkins, M., & Quaynor, L. (2018). Linguistically responsive teaching in preservice teacher education: A review of the literature through the lens of cultural-historical activity theory. Journal of Teacher Education, 71(2), 203-217. http://doi.org/10.1177/0022487118808785 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487118808785
Stone, C. (2017). Opportunity through online learning: Improving student access, participation and success in higher education. https://www.ncsehe.edu.au/publications/opportunity- online-learning-improving-student-access-participation-success-higher-education/
Thompson, L. F., & Lynch, B. L. (2003). Web-based instruction: Who is inclined to resist it and why? Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29, 375–385. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2190/3VQ2-XTRH-08QV-CAEL
Thompson, P. (2012). Field. In M. Grenfell (Ed.), Pierre Bourdieu: Key concepts (2nd ed., pp. 65–82). Routledge.
Thurmond, V. A., Wambach, K., Connors, H. R., & Frey, B. B. (2002). Evaluation of student satisfaction: Determining the impact of a Web-based environment by controlling for student characteristics. The American Journal of Distance Education, 16, 169–189. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/hajd20 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/S15389286AJDE1603_4
Tomlinson, M. (2017). Forms of graduate capital and their relationship to graduate. Education+ Training, 59(4), 338–352. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-05-2016-0090
Toquero, C. M. (2020). Challenges and opportunities for higher education amid the COVID-19 pandemic: The Philippine context. Pedagogical Research, 5(4), 1-5. http://doi.org/10.29333/pr/7947. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/pr/7947
Trust. T. (2017). Using cultural historical activity theory to examine how teachers seek and share knowledge in a peer-to-peer professional development network. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(1). http://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.2593 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.2593
Tsai, C. C., & Liu, S. Y. (2005). Developing a multi-dimensional instrument for assessing students’ epistemological views toward science. International Journal of Science Education, 27(13), 1621–1638. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690500206432
Tsang, J. T. Y., So, M. K. P., Chong, A. C. Y., Lam, B. S. Y., & Chu, A. M. Y. (2021). Higher education during the pandemic: The predictive factors of learning effectiveness in COVID-19 online learning. Education Sciences, 11, 1-15. http://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11080446 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11080446
Tuan, H. L., Chang, H. P., Wang, K. H., & Treagust, D. F. (2000). The development of an instrument for assessing students’ perceptions of teachers’ knowledge. International Journal of Science Education, 22(4), 385–398. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/095006900289804
University of Waterloo. (n.d). Synchronous and asynchronous online learning. https://uwaterloo.ca/keep-learning/strategies-remote-teaching/synchronous-vs-asynchronous-online-learning#:~:text=Asynchronous%20learning%20means%20that%20the,through%20as%20their%20schedules%20permit.
Varenin, L., Vecherinina, E., Shchedrina, E. Valiev, I., & Islamov, A. (2021). Developing critical thinking skills in a digital educational environment. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 41, 1-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2021.100906 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2021.100906
Vu, C. T., Hoang, A. D., Than, V. Q., Nguyen, M. T, Dinh, V. H., Le, Q. A. T., Le, T. T. T., Pham, H. H., & Nguyen, Y. C. (2020). Dataset of Vietnamese teachers’ perspectives and perceived support during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data in Brief, 31, 1-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105788 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105788
Vu, N. T., Nguyen, T. T. T., & Hoang, H. (2021). English-majoring student teacher response to employability in light of a transition to online learning. International Journal of Teacher Education and Professional Development, 5(1), 1-16. http://doi.org/10.4018/IJTEPD.2022010105. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4018/IJTEPD.2022010105
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Wang, C. H., Shannon, D. M., & Ross, M. E. (2013). Students’ characteristics, self-regulated learning, technology self-efficiacy, and course outcomes in online learning. Distance Education, 34(3), 302-323. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2013.835779
Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803932
Wijekumar, K., Ferguson, L., & Wagoner, D. (2006). Problem with assessment validity and reliability in web-based distance learning environments and solutions. Journal of Educa- tional Multimedia & Hypermedia, 15, 199–215. http://www.editlib.org/p/6259?nl
Yukselturk, E., & Bulut, S. (2009). Gender differences in self-regulated online learning environments. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 12(2), 12–22.
Zeng, X., & Wang, T. (2021). College student satisfaction with online learning during COVID-19: A review and implications. Multidisciplinary Perspectives in Higher Education, 6(1), 182-195.
Zhi, X., Lu, L., Pu, Y., Meng, A., Zhao, Y., Cheng, F., Jiang, J., Xu, J. L., & Zeng, Y. (2020). Investigation and analysis of psychological stress and professional identity of nursing students during COVID-19 pandemic. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 58, 426-432. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56042/ijeb.v58i06.65497
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
By submitting a manuscript to JECS, authors agree to transfer without charge the following rights to JECS upon acceptance of the manuscript: first worldwide publication rights and the right for JECS to grant permissions as JECS editors judge appropriate for the redistribution of the article, its abstract, and its metadata in professional indexing and reference services. Any revenues from such redistribution are used solely to support the continued publication and distribution of articles.